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KABANBAY (YERASYL) KOZHAKULULY – Institute of History and Ethnology named after Sh. Sh. Ualikhanov

KABANBAY (YERASYL) KOZHAKULULY


Kabanbay(Yerasyl) Kozhakululy(1692-1770) – Kabanbay batyr was known not only for his heroic deeds, but also as a commander, hero, country leader and statesman. In 1718 he participated in the Battle of Ayagoz, in 1724 in the Battle of Turkestan, in 1726 in the whole Kazakh Assembly in Ordabasy on the bank of the Badam River in South Kazakhstan and participated in the discussion of the plan against Jungars. In 1727 he was a commander in the Battle of the Kalmakkirylgan battles between the Bulantu-Belyu Rivers, the Battle of Anirakay in 1729-1730, the Battle of Shagan in Shingistau in 1750, the Battle of Baspan-Bazar, Shorga-Lasty in Tarbagatai, in clearing the Kazakh steppes from Jungars. Then in 1757 he took part in the Kazakh – China «Aytangsyk», Kazakh-Jungars «Mamyr su»  agreements in the territory of Ayagoz. In 1758 he opened the way for Kazakh-Chinese trade. He played an important role in the Kazakh-Kyrgyz and Kazakh-Kokan relations during the late 1750s and 1760s.

Biography

Kabanbay batyr became one of the leaders of the Kazakh military in the XVIII century during the Kazakh-Jungar war. Kabanbay Batyr was remembered as a warrior who took part in many battles for the Kazakh people’s liberation and opposed the aggression attacks that threatened the Kazakh land. There are a number of legends about Kabanbay Batyr called “Kabanbay batyr’s song” among the Kazakh people. In addition, data from the archives of China and Russia have been preserved about his historic route and his heroism.

Kabanbay Batyr came from the Karakerey kin, Naiman tribe of the Middle Zhuz. his genealogy is: Toktarkozha, from him Bayzhigit, Bayzhigit’s sons – Zhumik, Togas and Mambet, from Mambet – Kozhakul, from Kozhakul – Essenaman, Yessenbay and Kabanbay (Yerasyl).

Writer Zeynolla Sanyikuly, a younger son of Kabanbay Batyr, wrote in his work «Karakerey Kabanbay Batyr» in connection with the historical events of his ancestor’s birth and his return to historical events: “There is no evidence when Kabanbay Batyr was born and died. The following predications can be stated. In 1781 when Abylai khan died, when Bukhar Zhyrau was about one hundred years, and when Kabanbay died, «Bukhar was eighty-eight». Thus, Kabanbay died 12 years before Abylai, or 1769. There have been some lines in the song that when Kabanbay talked to his horse he said, «I am seventy-eight, and you are thirty-eight”. It was concluded, if he was seventy-eight in 1769, so he was born in 1691». This conclusion is logical. Kabanbay had seven sons – Umbetey, Kishkene, Syrymbet, Edige, Baitok, Moinak and Ali.

When Kabanbay was seven years old, his father Kozhakul batyr was killed by Jungars. The bloody vengeance has inspired courage and heroism from the early age of the future warrior. At the age of fifteen, his brother Yessenbay was killed by Jungars in the desert. This caused the young hero to sink and fall into the earlier heroic way. It was a vivid proof of his vigorous exit to his revolt, the slaughter of the Ozhezhargul his journey to the land of Kerey.

When Kabanbay goes in the Kerey land, the Jungars have stolen the horses of the Kerey village. Kabanbay went to Jungars with eleven people to bring the horses back. This time, Kabanbay returns with a big catch, the heroic glory and wealth of Kabanbay had increased. The change in the name «Kaban» to «Kabanbay» also took place after that [1].

The book «Tuhih Hamza», published in October 1910, written by Kurbangali Khalid earlier about the history of the Kazakh people stated: «In the time of Ablai, among the people who had been heroes,  sardars and called leader warriors Karakerey Kabanbay, Altybay Batyr, Aktanberdy Batyr, Kerey Zhanibek batyr, Akpantay batyr, Bongenbay batyr, and Malaisary, Batyr Kabanbay was the bravest …» [2].

Merits

During his life Kabanbay batyr defeated 103 times in his battles against Jungars, and generally he often returned with victory. Kabanbay batyr was known not only for his heroic deeds, but also as a commander, hero, country leader and statesman. Documents that have come to our attention today prove that he was constantly involved in the Kazakh politics and political affairs [3].

In that crucial period, the heroes known for their heroic fame in the country were Khanzhygaly Bogenbay, Karakerey Kabanbay, Shakshakuly Zhanibek, Kudayberdy Zhapek, Basenteein-Malaysary, Olzhabay Tolibayev, Karaul-Kanay, Otegen Utegululy, Shaprashty-Nauryzbay, Koigeldy Sartuly, Uak Sary, Bayan and many others. Poets, who influenced the mood and spirit of the people, were Bukhar Kalkamanuly, Kozhabergen Tolibayuly, Umbetey Tleuuly, Aktamberdy Sariuly.  The greatest figures of that time were Abulkhair, Bolat, Sameke, Abulmambet, Kushik, Zholbarys khan, Barak, Batyr, Eraly, Abilpayiz, Sultanmammat [4].

The famous sinologist scholar, historian K.Sh. Khafizova wrote in his article “Kabanbay Batyr”: “Abylai-khan’s heroes, who fight against Jungars and Chinese troops, were Kabanbay, Bogenbay, Bayan, Zhanibek and many other heroes. Their heroic deeds were written forever in the Kazakh epos. Kabanbay’s fame was not only military. He also solved the problem concerning the tribes. His heroic work was marked by the protection of the all Kazakh state interests and the contribution of the Kazakh Khanate to international relations” [5]. 

In the history of Kazakhstan in 1718 the Battle of Ayaguz took place. In this battle, Kabanbay batyr killed Jungar hero Arsalan. The main part of the Kazakh Khanate’s army came from Turkestan, crossed Sarysu and went along Shyngystau through Ulytau when they reached Ayaguz River met Kalmyk troops. The Kalmyk side, fortified on the bank of the river, felt that they were losing their strength after a day’s war, built the fortress on the bank of the river. On the second day, they fought again and again on the bank of the river building the fortress on the both sides of the river. On the third day, the Kazakh army started dumping Jungars. After the historic event, the Russian Ambassador Boris Bryantsev spoke to Kazakh Kuttybay about the event. B. Bryantsev told about this event: “All the sons of the great king of great nobles, Prince Petr Alekseevich, appeal to Boris Bryantsev, Yakob Taryshtin, Kabai Mamayev, to the prince Prince Matvei Petrovich, the ruler of the Siberian governor, without any limits on the power of the Russian government.

According to your order, we were told to come to the Kazakh settlement for the first time, to tell the truth about the war that took place last summer between Kazakhs and Kalmyks, who were winning and how far Kazakhs were able to enter the Kalmyk land. On the basis of this order we reached the first Kazakh settlement on January 21, 1718. In the first yurt, Mr. Kuttibay told about the war between Kazakhs and Kalmyks that the Kazakh army against the Kalmyks itself had 30, 0000 people, and about one thousand people met with the Kalmyks near the river Ayaguz, fought against Kalmyks up to the evening, and Kalmyks cut down the trees, built a fortress at night; we attacked the fortress for two days.

On the third day a thousand and a half people were sent to the Kalmyks, the Kazakh troops arrived when the Kazakh defenders began to flee; nobody knows how many Kalmyks have been killed and how many people have lost their lives. They have only brought “the tongue” in Kalmykia, they are still in the hands of Kazakhs. Abulkhair khan and others returned to their homeland safely. Other Kazakhs also share Kuttibay’s words, only one of them informed that in the morning on the third day of the war Kalmyks suddenly attacked, and Kazakhs opposed the long rifles. The Kalmyk people began to attack devastatingly, forcing the Kazakhs to flee for one and a half day, Kalmyks killed them and nobody knows how many of them were killed.

On February 14,  Tyumen Tatar Butik Kupashev came with Kazakh Bektas and spoke about the war against Kalmyks: according to the story of Bektas, who participated in the war, there were 30,000 Kazakhs and they met Kalmyks on the Ayagoz river and fought against them. Half of the Kazakhs crossed the other side of Ayagoz, and passed to the Kalmyks. The following day in the afternoon eight hundred Kalmyks attacked the Kazakhs sitting calmly and about four hundred Kazakhs were killed, Kazakhs abandoned their possessions on both sides [7]. Consequently, the defeat of Abulkhair Khan and Kayip Khan resulted in a loss of unity because of the conflict.
  At this time, the Jungar feudal lords decided to strike at the Kazakhs and attack the Kazakh land, and then to Central Asia. The spring of 1723 was selected for the attack, and it was the time when the Kazakh villages suffering from winter, were preparing for the pasture. That year it was great jute. In the memory of the Kazakhs it remained as “Milking the Birch, White Mouse Year”.

Jungars army consisted of  70,000 people. For example, the son of Cvean Rabdan Kaldan Tseren went to Balkhash with 10 thousand troops and then to Karatau. Kondayshi’s grandson Amursana’s troop headed to the Nura River basin. Kaldan-Tsereen’s son Cevan-Dorje went to the valley of Shelek. Kaldan-Tsereen’s second son, Lama-Dorj went to Issyk-Kul. Noyan Dodama-Dorji went to reach the Chu River. Cevan Rabtan himself passed through Ili and moved to the south of Zhetysu. The general guidance for the invasion was carried out by Shona-Doba, the brother of Cevan Rabdan.

The battle for the city Turkestan, the capital of the Kazakh Khanate against the Jungarian occupation, was in 1724. When Jungars attacked to invade Turkestan, Elshibel batyr and Kabanbay batyr were directly involved in the defense of the city. The city’s inhabitants were heroic even when Sairam was surrounded by enemy [8].

Kabanbay Batyr played a leading role in Turkestan defense. Due to this event the writer I. Yessenberlin in his second book titled “The Nomads”, in the book Ruffle, wrote: “Oh, people! I’m Karakerey Kabanbay! The country is in danger. Jungars are coming from the south and north.  Are there any men, who are able to fight?

– «Oh, people! The enemy coming nearer is not weak.  We can find people, who are able to preserve our country, our land, but we need only unitity. If you give a Turkestan to enemy, the shanyrak of the Kazakh land will fall to the ground. Don’t think that he is a young man, follow this Elshibek! If a person is purposeful, he will have success. If a person is eager to lead the country, he is always brave! «[9]

Kabanbay batyr took part in the all Kazakh Assembly conducted in 1726 in Ordabasy on the bank of the Badam River in the South Kazakhstan region and participated in the discussion of the plan against Jungars. Tribe heads, commanders and heroes such as Abulkhair, Abulmambet, Semeke, Zholbarys khans, Tole bi, Kazybek bi and Aiteke bi participated in people’s Assembly dedicated to the organizing of the battle against the Jungar invaders, who attacked the peaceful country and made people struggle from «Aktaban Shubrindy, Alkakol Sulama» tragedy at the beginning of the XVIII century.

The issue of organizing the nationwide repressions against the Jungarian encroachment and election of the commander of the Kazakh squadron was discussed at the meeting. At Ordabasy, Abulkhair Khan was appointed Commander-in-Chief. The participants promised to coordinate their movements, break up the united front, and prepare a plan for the future liberation of the country. As a result of the tradition of the Kazakh three-fold, the Kazakh people won the largest battle  near the «Kalmykkyrgan» ridge between Bulandy-Belyuti rivers in 1727 [10].

The Battle of Anyrakay played a prominent role in the victory of the Kazakh people against the Jungar invaders in the Patriotic War (1729-1730). It is mentioned in traditional Kazakh folklore. Moreover, M. Tynyshbaev’s work and many others stated about this issue. The story tells that the Anyrakay battle was 120 kilometers south-east of Lake Balkhash.

The region, where the Anyrakay battle happened, was in the Anyrakay Mountains, the Aksuyek, Khantau hills, 200 kilometers east of Almaty. There are places like «Big Orda», «Sumkaitty». Abulkhair khan leaded the Anyrakay battles. There is no doubt, that the successful start of the battle encouraged Kazakh soldiers to win. And they won. They were filled with a sense of pomp and spirit, and demonstrated their courage, solidarity, and high military training. The best qualities of Abulkhair khan and his comrades were reflected in this battle. There were many heroes, judges, sultans, tribe leaders, and representatives of all three zhuses among those who showed their personal courage and organizational abilities in the Anyrakay Battle. about the 20th anniversary Telling about the Patriotic War in the 20th of the XVIII century Bukhar Zhyrau called the names of heroes such as  Karakerey Kabanbay, Kanzhigaly Bogenbay, Shakshak Zhanibek, Tama Eset, Syrgeli Tleuke, Karakalpak Kulashbek, Shaprashty Nauryzbay, Kudaimendy Zhabek, Sengirbai and Shukebay, Tansytkozha Malut, Kaskaralaul Moldabay, Ainakul Batuy. They headed hundreds and thousands of Kazakh troops. This is how the military registry was listed in Kazakhs.

Aktamberdy Saryuly participated in these battles. He did not only fight the enemy, but also revealed the national character of the Patriotic War in his works. Umbetay zhyrau also took part in this war. Bukhar Zhyrau, one of the most famous poets and thinkers of the Kazakh people did not only witnessed these events, but also he lived out the loss of his people and the triumph of defeat and victories in the Great Patriotic War [8, 143-146].

In 1735 Kushik Khan, Barak Sultan and outstanding people of the Kazakh Khanate addressed a letter of «friendship agreement» to the head of the Orenburg expedition I.K. Kirillov. The letter contained the information on the intention to cooperate in friendship of Kushik khan, Barak Sultan, Kabanbay batyr, Ernazar Batyr, Utebai, Akshora bay, Suyindik bay, Shakaman batyr, Zharylgap batyr and others [11].

In 1740, the leader of the Bashkir rebellion against the colonial rule of the Russian Empire opposed two thousand people on the shores of the Karasakal Red River, after defeating the 11,000 army of V.Urusov, he escaped to the Kazakh steppes and was first occupied by Abylai Khan and later occupied Kazybek bi and Kabanbai Batyr in the Middle Zhuz. When he came to the Kazakh steppes he declared himself the former Shona Prince. This information reached the Jungar constellation, Kaldan-Tseren and bothered him [12].

Russian historian A.I. Levshin wrote in his  book The Describtion of the Kirghiz- Kazakh, or Kirghiz-Kaizakh, Ordas and Steppes” in 1832 “In 1740, Bashkortostan commander Karasakal fled to the territory of Kazakhstan and proclaimed himself as Kaldan Tseren’s relative  Shona Hero. First he was with  Kazybekbek  bi in Karkaraly, and then he went to the Black Irtysh to Karakerey Kabanbay’s possessions and lived there until the end of his life. “[13]

In 1751 Kabanbay Batyr cleared the Syr-Darya, Shymkent, Sairam, Tashkent from the Jungars and helped Tole Bi to reign. In 1752, he rescued several thousand Karakalpak people from Jungars [14].

In the 1750s, a unique battle in the history of the Kazakh people was a battle near Koniraulie cave on Shagan River in Shingistau. Mashkhur Zhusip Kopeiuly, K. Khalid and M.O. Auezov wrote about them. In the Battle of Chagan, Dorji and Arkaul gathered soldiers and started fighting against the Kazakh army headed by Abylai Sultan and Kabanbay Batyr, building a fortress near the Konyr sacred cave. After fighting for seven days, when the Kazakh army couldn’t take Abylai sultan told his soldiers if someone could take the fortress and defeat the enemy, he will be given title “Daraboz” and elected as a chief commander. Kabanbay Batyr held a meeting with Sultan Abylai, and decided to move to a special tactic of war. According to Kabanbay’s advice the full army was not entered in a battle, they were entered as a group of forces. Thanks to Kabanbay’s command and Esepenbet batyr the enemy was captured. Kabanbay batyr gave his flag to Abylai Sultan and returned with the victory when he fought against the Kalmyk Arkaul batyr. Finally, Abylay Sultan thanked Kabanbay and gave him a crown and a special garment to Espenbet batyr, and that’s why he was sometimes called Kabanbai “khan”.

After this victory, Abylai’s motto was «Darabozym – Kabanbay». Go and attack shouting Kabanbay. In the Battle of Shagan, the following heroes Bukhar, Kazybek, Boranbai, Tobet, Kabanbay, Bogenbay, Barmak, Subebai, Boranbai, Baymurat, Akpantai, Espenbet and others were next to Abylai Sultan. The remaining troops of Dorjin, who escaped and fled, were defeated by Er Zhanibek and Kokjarly Barak’s soldiers in the town of Ayagoz [15].

From 1756 to 1757 the Battle of Baspan Bazar on the banks of the Bazar River happened on the flank of the Tarbagatai Mountains. Heroes of the Middle Zhuz Argyns and Naiman tribes carried out when clearing the Tarbagatai landing from Kalmaks. That is, Kazakh soldiers, led by Kabanbay and Bogenbay batyrs, lived in the territory of Tarbagatai, where Karanai ruled. But this was the Kazakh land occupied by Kalmaks. After the total clearing the land from the Jungars, Kabanbay, Bogenbay, Boranbai, Kazymbet, Zhanakuly Maily, Kokjarly Barak, and other heroes demanded that the land of Karanai should be relocated from here. However, they did not agree, they fought and went out of Tarbagatai. This is mentioned in the song of Ubetey Zhyrau.

On the Tarbagatai mountain between Ayagoz and Tarbagatai districts there is a land called “Mailyshat”. Here are the stories of hundreds of warriors on each of the battles, including the Kabanbay lane, the Bogenbay lane, the Boranbay lane, and the Maylu lane, where every commander is heavily armed. [16]

In the 50th of the XVIII century during the last swamps of the Abylai Khan, when the Kazakhs came to the Kalba Mountain with a lot of troops, the warriors sat along the northern part of the lake, Shorga and a group on the sunny surface of Tarbagatai, in Urzhar and Emel. Kabanbay took part in the Shorga-lasty battles and became the commander of retaking the Kazakh steppes from the Jungars. This battle is also mentioned in the poems of Bukhar Zhyrau and in the work of Kurbangali Khalid. The Kazakh army cut off the lace in Shorga-Lasty, a few people were killed, but they returned with some income.

Then Kabanbay Batyr participated in the Kazakh-Jungarian «May Water» and Kazakh-Chinese «Aytansyk» agreements in Ayagoz in 1757. May water flows down to Ayagoz. There are wetlands below the mud. Kasabai grove is located in that area. The people called this area «bloodshed» because the Kalmaks’ initial idea was to ask for the cost of the khan, who died, and then they excused him and agreed to the close of blood of the khan. The Khan’s name was Kandyzhap. There were more than ten witnesses to our message», Kurbangali Khalid wrote [2, 106-109].

Historian N.Mukametkanuly, who worked on the history of the Kazakh people in the archives of China, wrote in his work «Kabanbay batyr in Chinese sources»: «Kabanbay (Yerasyl) Kozhakululy is the national hero of the Kazakh people against the Jungars. Kabanbay’s honored work to his people, his heroism and courage shown during the battle against the enemy have been legends for many centuries, they were sung as songs and written in the novels. But most people do not know the exact facts about Kabanbay Batyr written in the Chinese diaries»[17].

There was a dispute about the throne among the rulers in Jungar country and eventually Amursana and Davatsi fought against Lama Dorsi who was a ruler in 1750. After the death of Lama-Dorj in 1753, Davatsi became a king. There were clashes between Davatsi and Amirsana. The Abylai Kazakh khan used this misfortune very well. In 1755, Chinese Emperor Ziang Lun issued an order to attack the Jungars. The last fighter of the Jungars Amirsana fought against  Tsin’s army and fled to the Kazakh steppes after defeat. He had already been acquainted with the Sultan of Abylai. Abylai khan imprisoned Amirsan on the Kazakh land. He did not comply with the demands of the pursuers and extradite. He helped him to escape. The Tsin army, following Amirsana, fought with the army of the Kazakh Khanate.

Abylai, Abilpayiz, Khanbaba sultans, Bogenbay, Kabanbay and Kozhabergen batyrs in 1756-1757 fought against the Tsin Empire and defended the Kazakh land.

In the battle of the Kazakh Khanate and the Tsing Empire, the forces of both sides were not equal. However, the Kazakh army, led by Abylay and Bogenbay, fought in the Ishim, Nura and Bayanaul areas, Kozhabergen and Kabanbay batyr groups fought in Ayaguz, Tarbagatay. In 1757, under the leadership of Abylai Sultan, a peace agreement was signed between the Kazakh Khanate and the Tsing Empire. When the war continued, the Kazakhs and their sultans understood that the Kazakh people would be expelled from the earth. A peace agreement was signed between the two countries in the «Aytansik» in the district of Ayagoz. The information about this historic event has been preserved in the letters of Kabanbai and Otegen to the administration of the Russians in Siberia. Initially, Kazakh heroes opposed Abylaikhan’s idea about the Treaty with China, after long discussion it was agreed by them [19].

The information about the events of the Kazakh Khanate was transferred by  Murzali Shikhov, who had been sent to the Russian Empire as a spy and it was preserved in the Russian archives. In a letter dated on August 29, 1758 it was written “In the autumn of 1757,  Abylai Sultan made agreements with the Chinese Empire, without the consent of the Kazakh Nuraly Khan, Eraly Sultan, Kulsary, Kuleke, Kabanbay and Kozhabergen batyrs, total 60 known people» [20]. The content of this letter can be understood in two different ways. The first thing to do is to oppose Abylai to famous Kazakh people, and secondly, Abylay’s quick decision should be due to the intensity of time and intention to save the Kazakh people.
  Kabanbay Batyr was written in the Chinese inscriptions from 1757 to 1758 as the «Kazakh Temur Batu» – «the Main Hero «, the third person of the Kazakh Khanate after Abylai, Abilpayiz, and sometimes the fourth person after Abylai, Abilmambet, Abilpayiz. A well-known Chinese historian scientist ZK Tursynkhan published a large-scale article on «Kabanbay Batyr and Kazakh-Tsin relations». The author wrote: «In 1757, the first Kazakh ambassadors reached the Tsin Empire. Representatives of Kabanbay Batyr were included in the first diplomatic mission. The evidence of that was the archive document, which was discovered during the reign of the Tsyan Lun in Tsin Empire. One of the 7 people who came to Beijing said that “the deputy ambassador was Tanash, Karakerey Naiman Kabanbay’s brother» [21].

The subsequent relations of the Kazakh Khan with the Tsin Empire have been linked to two main issues. First, the most important was the problem of land. Kazakhs steppes sought to return steppes, rich lands especially in the Irtysh and the Ili gorges and Tarbagatai. And the Tsins slanted all places which belonged to Jungars earlier. These issues were solved diplomatically at the end of the 50th of the XVIII century.

Famous Kazakh people headed by Abylai Sultan and Kabanbay Batyr held negotiations with the Tsin Empire administration in the Altai and Tarbagatay regions of Kazakhstan to settle the Kazakh tribes. For example, in the archive of the Tsing Empire it was written «Kazakh Khan Abylai, Abilpayiz, Kanzhgyly Khanzhy, Tanash, Atygay, Omirtai, Tolen, Alnaz, Bekenay came to Zhygya (Ching-city) and spoke to me (Egen Khan). We would like to give them a great deal of rewards and say goodbye and they would like to go to Beijing. So they went to Beijing with my henchmen. Abylai and other elder people taking into account your living in outer far places, if we give you the title of inner commanders, this will cause the hinder of leading the country. That’s why I did not want to do anything wrong, and I want you to move on to your old places, it means that I permit you to move to your old places. If you send the ambassador to Beijing they will be shown hospitality. As for Tarbagatai, it is calm and uninhabited now. Abylai, Abelpayiz, I have sent you some precious clothes. Your ambassadors will present them when they come. In addition, the clothes and items presented to seven ambassadors and the total amount of thousands of silver money to buy things were allocated.  I am telling you all about this for you to be informed … [22]. »

 The second important issue of Kazakh-Chinese relations was trade. To supplement the Chinese horse army, the Kazakh horses were needed, and Kazakhs were interested in Chinese goods. The administration of the Tsin Empire strictly monitored trade with Kazakhstan and restricted the price of goods, disturbed Kazakhs in conducting free trade in the Tsing Empire. In general, cross-border trade with China was strictly limited in XVIII century. Abylai Khan sent his nearest companion, gabus commander Kabanbay to the opening ceremony of the bilateral trade agreement with China. Kabanbay Batyr leaded Kazakh merchants delegation and went to Urumchi, started the first exchange trade with Tsin Empire in the autumn of 1758. The story of that time was preserved as follows: «The Kazakh Kabanbay has trafficked more than 300 horses to Urumchi on September 17» [23].

In 1758 the road to Kazakh-Chinese trade was opened. One of the documents of the Tsin-Manzhu period, which is stored in the archives of China stated, «The statement of the King’s defense commander, Nusan, made a horse trade with the son of Kazakh Kabanbay, it is a valuable document». Nusa’s footnote states: «The son of the Kazakh (Hero) Kabanbay Edige brought Buge Shahan. Let’s make a decent trade with them if they have come here with their commercial merchandise. After Nauan’s, who was sent to Kazakhs, meeting with Abylai, we will immediately inform the Kazakhs if there are a large number of people from the trade». «If the Kazakhs did not come on time, the terms for sale should be taken to their previous place Barkol. I issued this decree». Now I think that Kazakhs who come this year will come next year too. The products that were transported to Barkol had to be redirected to Urumchi in the spring of next year, and again, they would need finance, labor, and effort. Next year in order to prepare the trade goods for Kazakhs, they should be left in Urumchi and  Nusans should be informed  about providing the army!»[24]

Kabanbay Batyr played an important role in the Kazakh-Kyrgyz and Kazakh-Kokand relations in the late 1750s and 1760s. After the liquidation of the Jungar Khanate, the problem of dispute and possession of the land of Zhetysu was among the Kazakh-Kyrgyz peoples. Caravans passed this region. It was difficult to control them, it was difficult to settle in the fertile valley of the Chu River and the Alatau slopes. The Kyrgyz were sometimes forced to march to the Kazakh villages and take away their animals and their hostages. Therefore, there was a strike between the two countries and there were several battles. One of them, in 1759, 15 thousand soldiers, headed by Abulmambet’s son Abilpayz and the son of Barak Sultan Khanbaba, attacked the Kyrgyz ownership of Nooros Batyr. Then in the 1760’s the Middle Zhuz Kazakhs organized a campaign again [25].

The Battle of Kabanbay Batyr, which was a legend and a pearl of Kazakh-Kyrgyz relations, was on Kyrgyz land. Kyrgyzs leaded by Ateke killed Kazakh Shyngozha and Barak batyr. Then, Kabanbay batyr and the heroes of the three zhuzes fought against the Kyrgyz. There are several versions of the poems about this historical event. Kabanbay Batyr won when Kabanbay and Ateke fought in the fight. But in some other versions, he fought against Amanali heroe. This battle is like a reality. It is because Ateke lived up to the 1780’s, and there are data on relations with Russia [26]. So, it is true that Kabanbay and Amanali batyr fought against each other.

The Kazakh Khanate, under the leadership of Abilay Sultan, fought several times in the 1760s with the ruler of the Kokand Khanate, Erdenbek. Its purpose was to protect Sairam, Turkestan, Shymkent and Tashkent in South Kazakhstan. After the disappearing of Jungars, when they were cleared from their influence, there was a dispute about the region. On the one hand, the Kazakh Khanate and on the other, the Kokan Khanate wanted their leadership.

In 1766, the Kokan governor, Erdenbek attacked Kazkahstan and damaged. At that time, Abylai opposed Erdenbek’s occupation to the Kazakh land and threw him to the Kyrgyz land Pishpek.

In this regard, Abylai asked the King of China for guns to attack the Kokand Khanate. They did not support his desire.

In 1767, Abylai made a trip to Tashkent, Erdenbek. He captured the road from Tashkent to Russia. Tashkent did not stand up against Abylai, and paid the taxes, he asked. The city passed to Abylai and Kazakhs authority. Thanks to this, Tashkent has started to trade with the Kazakhs barely. [27]

Kabanbai batyr, the heroic person of the Kazakh people, died in 1769. The whole life and activity of the historic person passed through the protection of the Kazakh people from external enemies.

Memory
  The scientific and theoretical conference dedicated to the 300th anniversary of Kabanbay Batyr was held in 1991 in Taldykorgan. B. Abylkassymov published an article entitled «Karakerey Kabanbay» in the scientific proceeding of the conference. The author stated that «The earliest and most widely distributed work of Kabanbai batyr is «Karakerey Kabanbay Batyr». About  twenty-eight versions of this work are known. Some of the manuscripts collected before the October Revolution were preserved in St. Petersburg, Kazan and Omsk. In the Soviet era, «Kabanbay batyr’s story» was written in various versions by poets» [28].

In Kazakhstan, the streets are named after Kabanbay in Almaty, Nur-Sultan, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Semipalatinsk and other cities due to his honor. In 1991 Z. Sanik and B.Sadihanuly published the collection of legends, research studies and myths. In 1993-1996 the novel «Daraboz» by novelist Kabdesh Zhumadilov was published in two volumes. The East Kazakhstan State University named after S.Amanzholov issued the medal «Kabanbay batyr» in 2019.

References:

1. Sanik Z., Sadykhanuly B. Karakerey Kabanbay Batyr. Legend, Study, Myths. – Almaty: Writer, 1991. – p. 58

2. Khalid Kurbangali. Tawarikh Hamza: Five Stories. Transl. by B. Totenaev, A. Zholdasov. – Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1992. – p.105

3. Karimov M. Where was Karakerey Kabanbai buried? // History of Kazakhstan. – № 2. 1995. – p.9

4. Abeuov K.K. Abylai Khan. Contemporaries and descendants. Kokshetau: Sh.Sh. Publisher of Shokan Walikhanov KSU, 2016. – p. 98

5. Hafizova K. Shan Kabanbay Batyr // News NAN RK. № 3. – 2007. – p.3-7.

6. Zhumadilov K. Daraboz. The first book. Almaty: Kazygurt, 2005. pp. 58-76.

7. Kazakh-Russian relations in XVI-XVIII centuries. (Collection Documents and Materials). Alma-Ata: Publishing House AN KazSSR, 1961. – p. 22.

8. History of Kazakhstan (from antiquity to the present). Five volumes. Volume 3 – Almaty:

Atamura, 2010. – p. 130-131

9. Yessenberlin I. Nomads. Historical trilogy. The second book. Almaty: Writer, 1976. – p.

10. Ordabasy gathering // Kazakhstan. National Encyclopedia / Senior Editor. B. Ayagan. – 

Almaty: Editor’s note “The Kazakh Encyclopedia”, 2005. – p. 174.

11. The Russian state archive of fireworks (RSAAA). F-113. Folder-1, File-1, P.484.

12. Taimasov S.U. Bashkortostan and Kazakhstan in the period from the Orenburg Province Formation. Sterlitamak: Publisher ped. academy, 2006. – p.81-89.

13. Levshin A.I. Describtion of Kirgiz-Kazakh, Kirgiz-Kaisak Ords and Steppes (under editorship of academician Kozybaeva M.K.). – Almaty: Sanat, 1996. – p. 497.

14.Material on history of Karakalpaks. Collection. M., 1935. – p. 223.

15. Sanik Z. Multiple collection of works. Volume 4 Karekerey Kabanbay. Khan Batyr Kabanbay. – Almaty: An-Arys, 2017. – p. 149-152.

16. Egizbaev K. Khan batyr Kabanbay batyr // Kazakh history. – № 2. 2003. – p.22

17. Mukhametkhanuly N. Kabanbay batyr // Abay. 2011. №1. P. 63

18. Hafizova K.Sh. Kazakh strategy Tsin Empire imperial. Almaty: Taimas, 2007. – p. 23-34.

19. Suleimenov R.B., Moiseyev V.A. From History of Kazakhstan of XVIII века. Almaty: Science, 1988. – p.62

20. The Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RSAAA). F-248, Folder-113, File-867, p. 5-6.

21. Tursynhan K.Z. Kabanbay Batyr and Kazakh-Tsin relations // News Bulletin of KazNPU named after Abai. History series. №1 (36) .2013. – p. 70-73.

22. 100 documents (documents related to relations between the Kazakh Khanate and the Chinese Empire). – Almaty: Sanat, 1998. – p.33-34

23. Mukhametkanuly N. Public history of Kazakhs in China (1860-1920). Almaty: Kazinform, 2000. – p.54

24. The Chinese requisites about the history of Kazakhstan. Volume III. Almaty: Dike Press, 2006. – 64-65.

25. History of Kyrgyzstan. From ancient times to today. 3-volume. ІІ t. / Under ed. A. 

Dumananeyev. Snail: Kuta-Ber, 616 (p. 200).

26. Sagyimbaev M. Karakerey Kabanbai batyr // The story of ancestors. 100 volumes. – Astana:

Foliant, 2010. V.58. Historical poems. 11 p. 341-359

27.  Abylai Khan. Documents and materials related to life and activities. Compiled by

Z.Taishybai. Petropavlovsk, LTD, 2005. – p.374-378.

28. Abylkasymov B. Karakerey Kabanbay batyr // History and culture of Zhetisy. Proceedings of

the scientific and theoretical conference dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the Kazakh national hero – Karakerey Kabanbai. Volume II. Taldykorgan: Sh.Sh. Walikhanov Institute of History and

Ethnology. – July 1, 1992, p. 31-42.

Yensenov Kanat