Warning: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, class '' not found in /var/www/iie/data/www/iie.kz/wp-includes/class-wp-hook.php on line 308
Basic history of the institute – Institute of History and Ethnology named after Sh. Sh. Ualikhanov

History of the institute


Basic history of the institute


Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology is one of the oldest scientific institutions of the republic. The history of its creation is directly related to the activities of the Academy of Sciences in Kazakhstan. The beginning of the formation of the academic network dates back to 1932, when the Kazakh base of the USSR Academy of Sciences was formed. In 1933, the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of National Culture was created in its composition, which was engaged in the study of history, archeology, literature and folklore, language, visual and musical choreographic art. The historical and archaeological sector of this institute served as the basis for its formation in 1936. the historical sector of the Kazakh base, and then the Kazakh branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1938) As part of the KAZFAN of the USSR in 1941, the Institute of Language, Literature and History was organized, at the origins of which stood such remarkable Kazakh scientists as N.T. Sauranbayev (the first director of the Institute), A.H. Margulan, S. Amanzholov and others . 

The Institute of History was established on the basis of the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the decision of the staff Commission under the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated December 6, 1944 No. 689, the Decree of the Presidium of the Kazfilial of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR No. 20 dated August 14, 1945 “On the separation of independent institutes from the Institute of Language, Literature and History: the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography and the Institute of language and literature”.

In January 1961 The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR was named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov.

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR No. 73 dated September 12, 1991, it was renamed the Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology.

The structure of the IHE in 1945 looked as follows:

1. The sector of the history of Kazakhstan, which included departments: the history of the ancient and medieval period, the history of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan;

2. The sector of archeology as part of the departments: Paleolithic and Neolithic; Bronze and Early Iron;

3. The sector of ethnography with the department of crafts and everyday life.

The historical science of Kazakhstan rose to a qualitatively new level during the Great Patriotic War. In the creation and formation of the Institute, the definition of its scientific directions and the training of national personnel, an important role belongs to the institutes of the former USSR Academy of Sciences, Russian scientists: A.M. Pankratova, S.V. Bakhrushin, B.D. Grekov, N.M. Druzhinin, M.P. Vyatkin, S.V. Yushkov, A.P. Kuchkin, etc., who were in these years in the republic. A creative team, which included: D.A. Bayevsky, A.P. Kuchkin, A.M. Pankratova, B.D. Grekov, N.M. Druzhinin, took part in the preparation and creation of a generalizing work on the history of Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day (“History of the Kazakh SSR”, Alma-Ata, 1943)., A.N. Bershtam, A.F. Yakunin, S.M. Mukanov, G.M. Musrepov, M.O. Auezov, B. Kenzhebaev, Ya.Ya. Zutis, A.F. Miller, E.S. Ismailov, S.L. Fuchs, N.T. Timofeev, S.N. Pokrovsky, M.P. Vyatkin, S.V. Yushkov, A.J. Lurie. Among them was the first doctor of historical sciences from the Kazakhs – Ermukhan Bekmakhanov. The publication of the “History of the Kazakh SSR” was a notable event in the historiography of Kazakhstan, in the scientific life of the country. This was the first experience in the USSR of creating a collective generalizing monograph on the history of the national republic. 

At the end of the 50s, the problem of personnel was mostly solved. The structure of the institute was formed: it had 7 departments and 75 scientific and technical workers. Already in the first decade after the formation of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, a significant number of monographic studies were written by the staff of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography. These include the works of V.F. Shakhmatov, M.P. Vyatkin, N.G. Appolova, B.S. Suleimenov, A.N. Nusupbekov, G.F. Dahshleiger, E.D. Dilmukhamedov, A.S. Elagin, E. Bekmakhanov, S.N. Pokrovsky, etc.

During the preparation of the second two-volume edition of the History of the Kazakh SSR, a campaign was launched to combat cosmopolitanism and nationalism in historical science. The most striking example in this regard are the vicissitudes in the development of Kazakh folklore and the controversy surrounding the book by E. Bekmakhanov “Kazakhstan in the 20-40s of the XIX century” (Alma-Ata, 1947). In 1952, E. Bekmakhanov was arrested and sentenced to 25 years. On April 10, 1951, the Central Committee of the CP(b) of Kazakhstan in its resolution obliged the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR to revise the generalizing publication on the history of Kazakhstan and pointed out the problems requiring priority study.

Since October 1947, the Joint Scientific Council of the IAE and IAL of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR began to function with the right to accept doctoral and candidate dissertations in the specialties: “History of Kazakhstan”, “History and Ethnography of the Kazakh and Uighur peoples”, on the archeology of Kazakhstan, history and ethnography of the Dungan, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak peoples.

In 1951-1952, after the abolition of the sectors, departments were created: ancient and medieval history of Kazakhstan; modern history of Kazakhstan; socialist construction in Kazakhstan; history of the October Revolution and Civil War in Kazakhstan; archeology; ethnography.

A lot of work was carried out by the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography on the problems of historiography and the introduction into scientific circulation of a series of oriental sources on the ancient and medieval history of Kazakhstan; works on the history of the state of the Kimaks, tribes and nationalities of Southeastern Kazakhstan were published, in which, based on the generalization of materials from a wide range of Arab, Persian and Turkic-speaking sources and literature the issues of ethnic and socio-economic life of the regions are highlighted. 

The results of many years of purposeful work of scientists-historians of the republic received their generalization in the publication of the two–volume “History of the Kazakh SSR” (vol. 1 – 1957; vol. 2 – 1959). The book, which received high praise in the press and public recognition, began to be used as a textbook at the historical faculties of universities. Based on it, programs on the history of the Kazakh SSR for higher and secondary schools, anthologies and textbooks were compiled.

But science was moving forward rapidly, new documentary material was accumulating and comprehending. In a short time, the team of scientists of the Institute prepared a reissue of the History of the Kazakh SSR in Kazakh and Russian. The Epoch of Socialism” (1963). For more than a quarter of a century, the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR was successfully led by prominent scientists and organizers of science – Nusupbekov Akai Nusupbekovich and Dahshleiger Grigory Fedorovich. Many of the achievements of the collective of the mid-50s – early 80s are directly related to their names and activities.

Well-known shifts have occurred in the study of the extremely complex problem of the origin of the Kazakh nationality. In the 50s, the works of V.F. Shakhmatov, H.M. Adilgireev, V.V. Ginzburg were published on this problem. The ethnic and linguistic affiliation of the tribal components that became part of the Kazakhs was clarified.

The problem of the emergence and development of statehood on the territory of Kazakhstan was studied. The previously generally accepted view of the relatively late emergence of statehood on the territory of Kazakhstan was revised. New data from archaeologists, information from historians made it possible to raise the question of the nature of the political system and the emergence of elements of statehood among the ancient inhabitants of the south of Kazakhstan – the Usuns and Kangly. The reasons for the emergence of the Kazakh statehood of the Kazakh khanates in the XV–XVI centuries were revised. The internal socio-economic and political factors that led to the formation of the Kazakh khanates were clarified.

The end of the 40s – 50s was marked by a wide scope of archaeological research. They covered almost all the main regions of Kazakhstan and included monuments of a very different chronological range in the field of research. Among the important discoveries of these years are Paleolithic sites in the south of Kazakhstan, mounds of Saks and Usuns in the valley of the Ili River, rock paintings in the Tamgalytas tract. At that time, excavations of the Beshatyr burial ground on the Ili River were started; catacomb burials on the Syr Darya, in the Chardara tract; excavations at the Baba-Ata citadel were completed. Based on the long-term works of the Central Kazakhstan expedition (A.H. Margulan), it was concluded that Central Kazakhstan is the largest region of ancient copper mining and smelting, highly developed culture of the Bronze Age and early Iron.

An important indicator of the growth of the scientific potential of historians-researchers and employees of the state archives of the Kazakh SSR was the publication of documentary materials and collections of memoirs on both the pre-revolutionary and Soviet history of Kazakhstan: “The Uprising of 1916 in Kazakhstan: documents and materials” (1947); “The Revolutionary movement in Kazakhstan 1905-1907” (1955); “The Workers’ and Agrarian Movement in Kazakhstan 1907-1914” (1955); “The Victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Kazakhstan 1917-1918” (1957); “In the Fire of the Revolution (Memoirs of participants of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the Civil War in Kazakhstan)” (1957).

In 1955, the Oriental Studies Sector was created on the basis of the Uighur-Dungan culture sector under the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. At the end of 1959, the sector was disbanded, and its employees formed the core of the Department of History of neighboring countries of the Foreign East (1959-1963), established at the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. The 60s were the most fruitful for Kazakh orientalists. A large group of scientists: Baranova Yu.G., Bakhamov G.B., Zuev Yu.A., Iskhakov G.M., Kabirov M.N., Mingulov N.N., Morzhanov V.M., Malyavkin A.G., Kuznetsov V.S., Pishchulina K.A., Sultanov T.I., Yudin V.P. and other researchers have started translating a wide range of sources on the history of ancient and medieval Kazakhstan in Arabic, Persian, Chinese, and Turkic languages. A study of individual problems of East Turkestan was conducted. Dozens of articles have been written, several PhD theses have been defended, thematic collections have been published. Already in these years, two main directions of research in Kazakh Oriental studies were determined: source studies and the study of the history of the neighboring peoples of Central Asia from antiquity to modern times. However, the Department of the History of Neighboring Countries of the Foreign East of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography was abolished in 1963. Some of the employees moved to the Department of ancient and medieval History of Kazakhstan. But the work in the field of Oriental studies continued. S.K. Ibragimov was one of the first Kazakh orientalists who started to identify and translate oriental sources. His translations and research are highly appreciated by historians. Ibragimov took the initiative to prepare a collection of extracts from eastern sources “Materials on the history of the Kazakh Khanates of the XV–XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1969). This complex, huge work was completed by V.P. Yudin. The compilers of this collection were – N.N. Mingulov, K.A. Pishchulina.

According to the history of the pre-revolutionary period of Kazakhstan, the researchers focused on the following problems: the disclosure of the essence of the socio-economic development of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan, the discussion about the role of land and livestock as the main means of production in a nomadic society, the land policy of tsarism and the resettlement issue. Agrarian relations, the development of agriculture and resettlement became the subject of discussions. A.B. Tursunbayev, P.D. Vereshchagin, and A.B. Geller were among the first to address the scientific analysis of these problems. Tolybekov S.E., S.Z. Zimanov, A.E. Erenov, V.F. Shakhmatov took the most active part in the discussion on the nature of industrial relations among nomads from Kazakhstan scientists.

The scientific activity of the Institute in the 60s was conducted on the following issues:

* History of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Kazakhstan;

* patterns of development and history of socialist and communist construction in Kazakhstan;

* patterns of human society development and the change of socio-economic formations on the territory of Kazakhstan;

* ethnogenesis and history of the formation of the Kazakh nation.

Such problems as the pasture-nomadic community in Kazakhstan in the XIX century (V.F. Shakhmatov), agrarian relations in Kazakhstan in the late XIX – early XX centuries received monographic development. XX centuries (B.S. Suleimenov, P.G. Galuzo, L.M. Auezova, S.A. Sundetov, V.S. Chernikov), the history of the working class of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan (E. Dilmukhamedov, S. Malikov, M.H. Asylbekov). In 1966 , A. Nusupbekov published a monograph on the history of the formation of national cadres of the working class in the period from October 1917 to 1940 . We rightfully associate the formation of the historiographical direction of the historical science of Kazakhstan with the name of G.F. Dahshleiger. He devoted two monographs and dozens of articles to this problem. For the first time in Kazakh science, he published monographic studies of a generalizing nature: “Historiography of Soviet Kazakhstan (Essay)” (1969), “V.I. Lenin and the problems of Kazakh historiography” (1973).

Source studies are becoming one of the important areas of research of Kazakh historians. In 1964-1967, under the leadership of Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.N. Pokrovsky, a two-volume collection of the most important documents “Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union” was published, which included more than 760 documents, many of which were published for the first time. Of particular interest are the publications of the documentary and reference type: the two-volume collection “Heroes of the Soviet Union – Kazakhstanis” (1968), letters from our countrymen from the theater of military operations “Frontline greetings to you, Kazakhstan” (1975), etc. Russian Russian relations in the XVI-XVIII centuries: collection of documents and materials” (Alma–Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma–Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XVIII centuries” (Alma-Ata, 1961); “Kazakh-Russian relations in the XVIII-XIX centuries: collection of documents and materials” (Alma-Ata, 1964).

The problem of the history of cultural heritage has become increasingly important in historical science. A major contribution to the publication of the sources that make up the heritage of the enlighteners was made by the staff of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov, headed by A.H. Margulan, who prepared for publication a five-volume collection of works by Ch.Ch. Valikhanov (1961-1972), and a group led by B.S. Suleimenov, who prepared a three-volume collection of works by I. Altynsarin (1975).

On May 30, 1969, the Academic Council for Historical Sciences was established at the Institute, which considered the issues of defending dissertations. A number of major studies by G.F. Dahshleiger, A.H. Margulan, A.N. Nusupbekov, R.B. Suleimenov, T.B. Balakaev, etc. he was awarded the prize of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov. Among the largest discoveries of archaeologists of these years are the excavations of the Issyk mound in Semirechye (K.A. Akishev, 1969), which became world famous.

In 1977, some changes took place in the structure of the Institute. Now it consisted of departments: ancient and medieval history of Kazakhstan; history of pre-Soviet Kazakhstan; history of Kazakhstan during the October Revolution and socialist construction; communist construction; history of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War; cultural history of Soviet Kazakhstan; archeology; ethnography.

Scientists of the Institute continued to study the prerequisites and development of the national liberation movement in Kazakhstan on the eve of October: a collection of documents “The Uprising of 1916 in Central Asia and Kazakhstan: collection of documents and materials” (Moscow, 1960), a monograph by B.S. Suleimenov and V.Ya. Basin “The Uprising of 1916 in Kazakhstan” (1977) was published. In the 70s – early 80s, Oriental studies at the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR were conducted in the Department of feudalism in Kazakhstan and the Oriental Studies sector, established in 1979 thanks to the efforts of R.B. Suleimenov’s Department of Oriental Studies was formed at the Institute, which he successfully led in 1979-1985. The monographs of B.E. Kumekov “The State of the Kimaks of the IX–XI centuries according to Arabic sources” (1972), K.A. Pishchulina “South-Eastern Kazakhstan in the middle of the XIV – early XVI centuries” (1977) received a positive assessment of the scientific community both in our country and abroad. The source study of the history of Kazakhstan, Central and Central Asia occupied an important place in the research of scientists of the Oriental studies sector – Abusetova M.H., Hafizova K.Sh., Beisembiev T.K., Zhapbasbaeva Zh. et al . They have done a lot of work to identify and study documents and materials about the foreign policy of the Qing Empire and the relations of the Kazakhs in the second half of the XUSH-early X1 centuries. in Russian, Chinese and Turkic languages.

In 1980, the collective work of the staff of the Department of Ethnography “Kazakh economy at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. Materials for the historical and ethnographic atlas”, which became a milestone in the history of Russian ethnology. The book highlights many issues of the history of animal husbandry (cattle breeding) and agriculture in Kazakhstan, gives an ethnographic description of these forms of management, associated beliefs, rituals.

As of December 1 , 1980 The Institute consisted of 10 departments:

* department of Archaeology – it includes: medieval Archaeology sector (archaeological museum); problem laboratory of archaeological technology;

* department of Ethnography;

* Department of Ancient and Medieval History of Kazakhstan;

* department of the History of pre-Soviet Kazakhstan;

* Department of the History of the Great October Socialist Revolution and Socialist Construction;

* department of the History of the Great Patriotic War;

* Department of the History of Communist Construction;

* Department of Cultural History of Soviet Kazakhstan;

* Department of Historiography of Kazakhstan;

* Department of Oriental Studies.

The Institute also had a Commission on the History of Science and Technology of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, headed by Zh. Ahanov.

The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in 1989-1990 participated in the development of regional research on 5 topics:

1. Ethnocultural processes in the Kazakh SSR (Regional program “Ethnic history and modern national processes”. Heads: Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR R.B. Suleimenov, Candidate of I.N. Kauanova H.A.).

2. Industrial progress and improvement of social relations of the working class of Kazakhstan (Regional program “Socio-economic and spiritual development of Soviet Kazakhstan”. Leaders: Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR Asylbekov M.H., Doctor of Historical Sciences Balakaev T.B.).

3. The development of ethnic processes in Kazakhstan, the completion of the formation of the Kazakh nationality and the further development of ethnic processes at the present stage. (Regional program “Improvement of national relations and the effectiveness of international education” Head: Doctor of I.N. Ismagulov O.I.).

4. Problems of historiography of Soviet Kazakhstan (Regional program “Theoretical and methodological problems of historiographical research”. Head: Academician Kozybayev M.K.).

5. Kazakhstan in the first period of the Great Patriotic War (Regional program “Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War”. Head: academician Kozybayev M.K.).

In 1991 there were significant changes in the organization of the academic historical science of Kazakhstan. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 496 dated August 28, 1991 and Resolution of the Presidium of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 73 dated September 6, 1991 on the basis of the Archaeological Center of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the Institute of Archaeology was established, which was named after an outstanding scientist archaeologist, historian, ethnographer, orientalist, philologist, academician A.X. Margulan. 

With the acquisition of sovereignty by Kazakhstan, the priority place in the institute’s research was taken by the implementation of a program to uncover “white spots”. The historians’ efforts were aimed at highlighting the previously “closed zones”, rethinking the problems of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet history of the republic. In 1991-1995, the Institute’s scientists published “The History of Kazakhstan: “White spots”, a one-volume “History of Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day” in Kazakh and Russian. Monographs of academician M.K. were published. Kozybayeva “History and modernity”, “Aktandaktar akikaty” (“History of white spots”, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of the RK K. Nurpeisova “Alash and Alash-Orda”, J.B. Abylkhozhina “Traditional structure of Kazakhstan”, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan M.H. Asylbekov and A.B. Galiev “Socio-demographic processes in Kazakhstan”, P.S. Belan “On all fronts”, the group of authors “Kazakhs”, etc.

New research, creative discussions, conferences, round tables made it possible to start preparing a new academic fundamental edition of the 5-volume “History of Kazakhstan”. The team of authors tried to consider the history of Kazakhstan as an original history and at the same time as an organic part of the Eurasian history, the history of the peoples of the Turkic world, as part of the world history of mankind, to reveal the place and role of the Kazakh people in the world civilizational process.

Three volumes of the publication were published in Russian and Kazakh. The first volume (1996) is devoted to the problems of ancient, ancient and early medieval history. The editorial board of the volume: K.A. Akishev, K.M. Baypakov, O.I. Ismagulov, B.E. Kumekov. The second volume (1997) is devoted to the problems of late medieval history and covers the period from the middle of the XIII century to the beginning of the XVIII century. The editorial board of the volume: K.M. Baypakov, M.K. Kozybayev, B.E. Kumekov, K.A. Pishchulina. The third volume (2000) is devoted to the national history of the XVIII – early XX centuries. The editorial board of the volume: K.S. Aldazhumanov, M.H. Asylbekov, J.K. Kasymbayev, M.K. Kozybayev.

A series of works by scientists of the Institute on the ethnic history of the Kazakhs (M.S. Mukanov, H. Argynbayev), the history of the Cossacks in Kazakhstan (A.S. Elagin), on forced collectivization and the tragedy of famine in the early 30s (M. Kozybayev, J. Abylkhozhin, K. Aldazhumanov, etc.) A prominent role in the development of historical sciences of sovereign Kazakhstan, in the development of priority scientific directions belongs to academicians of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan B.A. Tulepbayev, M.H. Asylbekov, O.I. Ismagulov.

The problems of the formation of the Kazakh nationality and statehood, the place of the Kazakh state in the system of Central Asian countries were reflected in collective works: the five–volume “History of Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day”, scientific publications “Kazakhstan in the era of feudalism”, “Kazakhstan, Central and Central Asia in the XVI-beginning. XIX centuries.”, “Ablay and Kenesary”, “Essays on the history of medieval Uighurs, Jalairs, Naimans and Kereits”, etc. 

The Institute established and operated scientific schools in such areas as: ethnogenesis and anthropology of the Kazakh people (Ismagulov O.I., Azhigali S.E.); medieval history of Kazakhstan (Pishchulina K.A., 3ardyhan K.); history of the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people (Koigeldiev M.K., Valikhanov E.Zh.); Kazakhstan in the conditions of totalitarian Soviet system (Nurpeis K.N., Abylkhozhin Zh.B., Aldazhumanov K.S.); historical demography and diasporology (Asylbekov M.H., Mendikulova G.M.); historiography, source studies (Uzhikov B.M.).

Thus, a brief analysis of the scientific achievements of the Institute indicates significant advances in the study of national history, ethnology of Kazakhstan. At the same time, it should be noted that problematic issues in such important areas as the history of statehood, ethnogenesis and anthropology, the role and place of Kazakhstan in the Eurasian space in the past and present, etc., require further study and reflection.

In 2005, the Institute of History and Ethnology initiated the organization of the public association “Association of Historians of Kazakhstan”. The goals of the Association are the realization and protection of economic, social and cultural rights and freedoms; promotion of the democratization of society; satisfaction of professional and amateur interests; development of scientific and technical creativity; participation in charitable activities; cultural and educational work and expansion of international cooperation.

Along with the comprehensive development of fundamental research in the field of history, ethnology, anthropology of the Kazakh ethnos, the historical experience and lessons of the state-political, national and socio-cultural development of Kazakhstan, the history of national liberation movements and democratic ideas during the period of colonialism and the Soviet totalitarian system, the process of ethno-cultural development and anthropology of the Kazakh people in the context of Eurasian ideas are studied.

The Institute was the developer of the concept and the main executor of the state program “Madeni Mura – Cultural Heritage”, developed proposals for inclusion in the Concept of the development of historical science.

The contribution of IHE scientists to the development of historical science in Kazakhstan has been marked by high state awards and prizes. The winners of the State Prize of the Kazakh SSR (1982) were employees of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov: A.N. Nusupbekov, K.A. Akishev, B.N. Abisheva, G.F. Dahshleiger, A.H. Margulan, K.N. Nurpeisov – for the work “History of the Kazakh SSR from ancient times to our days” in 5 volumes. A number of IHE scientists have been awarded the Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Prize of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan for monographic research in different years: K.A. Akishev, M.K. Kadyrbayev, A.H. Margulan and A.N. Nusupbekov (1968), S.N. Pokrovsky and M.K. Kozybayev (1971), T.B. Balakaev (1972), R.B. Suleimenov (1973), B. Suleimenov (1979), K.M. Baypakov (1988), O. Ismagulov and K. Sikhimbayeva (1991). In 1982, the title of Laureate of the State Prize of the Republic in the field of science and technology was awarded to K.N. Nurpeisov.

In 1994, academician M.K. Kozybayev was awarded the State Prize of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of science and technology for a cycle of historical research. In 1997, by Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Director of the IHE, Academician M.K. Kozybayev, was awarded the Presidential Prize for Peace and Spiritual Harmony. In 1998, for merits in the development of historical science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, active participation in the preparation and holding of events related to the “Year of National Unity and National History”, corresponding members of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan M.H. Asylbekov, K.N. Nurpeis, O.I. Ismagulov were awarded the title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the Republic of Kazakhstan; the Order “Kurmet” was awarded K.S. Aldazhumanov – Deputy . Director of the IHE; K.A. Pishchulina, Head of the Department of Ancient and Medieval History, was awarded the Order of Dostyk. In 2000, Doctor of Historical Sciences H.A. Argynbayev and Doctor of Historical Sciences M.S. Mukanov were awarded (posthumously) the Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Prize for a series of works on history and ethnography. In 2002-2004, the state scientific scholarship for scientists who have made an outstanding contribution to the development of science and technology was awarded to Academician K. Nurpeis. In 2005, the fellows were scientists of the Institute, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head of the department of Z. Kinayatuly, Doctor of I.N. Mendikulova G.M., among young scientists – Krivkov A. Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Nurpeis K. was awarded the Order “Parasat” for the achievements in the study of the problems of modern history.

For more than 75 years of its activity, the Institute has become the leading scientific institution of the republic in the field of historical science, at the same time becoming a coordinating center for historical research.