About the department of the history of Kazakhstan of the XX century
To the history of the Department
From the time of the Institute’s formation until the end of the 1980s, the history of Soviet Kazakhstan was one of the leading directions in its research activities. Since the establishment of the Institute (1945), certain problematic issues in the history of the Soviet period have been raised and partially studied. The history of socialist industrialization and collective farm construction in the republic, the formation of working class cadres and its cultural and technical growth were studied. A prominent place in the research was occupied by the history of the development of virgin and fallow lands in Kazakhstan. Work was carried out to study the history of nation-state building and the Cultural Revolution.
The Department of the History of Kazakhstan of the XX century in different periods of its existence raised and studied questions on the history of the creation and development of Soviet statehood: A.N. Nusupbekov “Unification of Kazakh lands in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic”, V.K. Savosko “Transformation of the KazASSR into a Union Republic”. In the 1950s, the following main problems of the history of Kazakhstan were developed: the October socialist revolution and the civil war in Kazakhstan, socialist transformations in Kazakhstan, the culture and life of the Kazakh collective farm village in the era of socialism. Archaeological work has been developed. The Institute took part in the compilation and publication of documentary collections on the history of the civil war in Kazakhstan and Central Asia, socialist construction in the Kazakh SSR, the history of the 1916 uprising, etc. A group of scientists: T. Eleuov (head), E.A. Mozgunova, A.S. Elagin, A.I. Tsyba, P.I. Tugov and others, prepared a documentary collection “Civil War in Kazakhstan (1918-1920)”. The compilers have identified and collected interesting, yet unknown materials about the partisan detachment “Mountain Eagles of Tarbagatai”, the Perovsky detachment, and the heroic Cherkasy defense. Of particular interest are documents on the participation of Kazakh workers in the civil war, etc.
Department of the History of the October Revolution and the Civil War in 1956-1961. Expeditions were carried out to collect memoirs and documentary materials in the West Kazakhstan, Kostanai and South Kazakhstan regions. The participants of these expeditions in different years were the employees of the department of A.S. Elagin, M.A. Baikenov, K. Nurpeisov, P.I. Tugov, A.I. Tsyba, I. Shamshatov, E.A. Mozgunova, G. Yesengaliyeva, A. Ospanov. The materials of these expeditions were published in the Proceedings of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography. Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR ” (V. 13, Alma-Ata, 1962; T. 17. Alma-Ata, 1963.).
An important result of the scientific work was “History of the Kazakh SSR. The era of socialism”, published in 1963. This work summarized the main achievements in the study of the history of Soviet Kazakhstan in recent years. In 1967, a generalizing two-volume work “History of the Kazakh SSR from ancient times to the present day” was created (the second volume is devoted to the history of Soviet Kazakhstan, withstood two editions). In works on historiography of the 1960s and 1970s, much attention was paid to the study of the history of culture and cultural construction in the Soviet era.
In 1977, the topic “Kazakhstanis in the final battles of the Great Patriotic War” was completed (Head: Doctor of History T.B. Balakaev).
From 1976 to 1980, the Institute developed a major problem – “The History of the Peasantry of Soviet Kazakhstan (1917-1975)” (in two volumes: volume 1 – October 1917-1945, volume 2 – 1946-1975) Head: member Correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR G.F. Dachschleiger. The study involved: Doctor of History Balakaev T.B., Doctor of History Nurpeisov K.N., Doctor of History Argynbaev Kh.A., Doctor of History Mikhailov F.K., Ph.D. Savosko V.K. In 1983, the topic “Kazakhstan in the Great Patriotic War” (1941-1945) Head: T.B. Balakaev. Performer: – Ph.D. P.S. Belan.
In 1980-1984 the theme “History of the formation and development of the Kazakh Soviet intelligentsia” was developed (1917-1940). Head: Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR R.B.Suleimenov. Participated in the development of the topic: Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR R.B. Suleimenov, Doctor of Historical sciences M.Kh. Asylbekov, Candidate of Historical Sciences Bisenov Kh.I., research assistant Abzhanov Kh.M., K.G. Asanov, Zh. Akhanov, Sh.K. Betkembaeva, B. Bisembaev, Z.A. Tazhibaeva.
The topic “History of the cities of Kazakhstan” continued to be explored (supervisor – Doctor of Historical Sciences A.S. Elagin). The purpose of the work: a comprehensive study of the history of cities in Kazakhstan in the pre-revolutionary and Soviet era, especially industrial cities, the study of the dynamics of their main demographic indicators, the role of cities as economic and cultural centers. In 1980, a monograph “History of the city of Petropavlovsk” was prepared, which reveals the history of the foundation of the fortress and its transformation into a major commercial, economic and cultural center of North-Eastern Kazakhstan. It is emphasized that in connection with the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, Petropavlovsk became the center of a developing industry. Five chapters of the monograph cover the history of the city in the Soviet period.
In 1986-1988, the department of culture worked on the topic “The spiritual life of the aul and village of modern Kazakhstan” Head: Corresponding Member of Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR R.B. Suleimenov.
In 1985-1988, the department of the history of Kazakhstan of the Soviet period developed the topic: “Nation-state construction in Kazakhstan during the Great October Revolution and the Civil War (1917-1920)”. Scientific adviser doctor of historical sciences is K.N. Nurpeisov.
In the conditions of independence, the historians of Kazakhstan from new positions considered such key problems as forced collectivization, famine of the 20-30s and its consequences, repressions against the national intelligentsia, deportation of peoples to Kazakhstan. The processes of formation of “barracks socialism” are comprehensively and convincingly disclosed.
The subject of special research in recent years has become the problem of resistance to the totalitarian regime in the political and spiritual spheres. A group of scientists led by Academician of the National Academy of Sciences K. Nurpeis worked in this direction.
For the first time in Kazakh historiography, the Institute began a comprehensive study of the tragic events associated with forced collectivization, dispossession of kulaks, political repressions, the mass famine of 1932-1933, the destruction of the pasture-nomadic economic complex and the entire traditional structure. The historical facts of the resistance of the national elite and the people to the violent modernization of the Kazakh society in the 20-30s are revealed and scientifically substantiated. For the first time, the scale of peasant movements and uprisings is presented; work has been carried out to create a data bank on the repressed throughout the republic. These data are entered into a single electronic data bank “Returned Names” of the CIS countries (Moscow). The history of the deported peoples to Kazakhstan was actively developed at the Institute.
In 1991-1993, a group of employees of the department led by K.S. Aldazhumanova developed the theme: “The historical fate of the Kazakh sharua (peasants) (1900-1993)” in the Kazakh language. The group of researchers included – Corresponding Member. K.N. Nurpeisov, Doctor of History Zh. Abylkhozhin, Doctor of Historical Sciences T. Balakaev, Candidate of Historical Sciences Zh. Kuanyshev.
In addition, under the leadership of Aldazhumanov K.S. the topic “Agrarian issue and repressions against the peasantry in Kazakhstan (1920-1940)” in the Kazakh language was studied.
In 1992-1994, the department researched the topic: “The role and place of the Alash party in the social and political life of Kazakhstan in the early twentieth century.” (In Kazakh.) Supervisor – Corresponding Member NAS RK K.N. Nurpeisov. Performers: Doctor of Historical Sciences Grigoriev V.K., Candidate of Historical Sciences Panfilov A.V., Beisembaev S.B., Uskembaeva G.Zh., Narmanbetova A.I., Gabdullina E.V., Saurykova A.
In 1994, the topic “Historical experience of defending the Fatherland” was completed under the scientific guidance of Academician M.K. Kozybaev and Doctor of Historical Sciences. Belana P.S. Balakaev T.B., Madiyarov M., Bakaev L.A., Edygenov N.E., Tasbulatov A.B. took part in the development of this topic.
In 1995-1996 under the leadership of academician K. Nurpeis, the department developed the topic: “History of political repressions in Kazakhstan” (1900-1941)”. The implementation of this work was aimed at restoring historical memory, eliminating white spots in history and implementing the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated April 14, 1993 “On the rehabilitation of victims of mass political repression.” The theme developed by the department: “History of political repressions in Kazakhstan. (1941-1990)” was a logical continuation of its first part, completed in 1996 and covering the period 1917-1940. The completed topic includes three blocks of problems of the history of political repressions in Kazakhstan in 1941-1990.
In 1994-1995, the department worked on the topic “Totalitarianism and culture of the Kazakh people.” Scientific adviser: academician Kozybaev M.K. The employees of the department took part in the development of the topic: Kapaeva A.T., Mustafina R.M., Asanova S.A., Mustafaev N., Nauryzbayeva Z.Kh., Gurevich L.Ya collaborated with the department.
In addition to participating in the program of fundamental research, the Department of the History of Kazakhstan in the Soviet period carried out a lot of unscheduled work. Thus, Professor K. Nurpeis was the compiler, editor, author of prefaces and comments on about ten documentary collections published in Kazakhstan.
In 2006-2008 the department worked on the topic: “Restoration of the territorial integrity of Kazakhstan in the twentieth century and the formation of the state borders of the Republic of Kazakhstan.”
Employees of the department in 2007 began to implement the section “National Idea in the Culture of Kazakhstan” of the applied research “National Idea in the Historical Retrospective and Perspective of Kazakhstan”. The head of the section is the head of the department, Doctor of Historical Sciences Kapaeva A.T. And our 10 researchers participated in the project.
In 2009-2011 the department investigated the topic: “Tolerance of the people of Kazakhstan in the conditions of a multi-ethnic state in the XX – early. XXI century: history, religion, culture”. Scientific leader of the project and the head of department, Doctor of Historical Sciences is Kapaeva A.T.
Since 2011, the staff of the department has been working on a grant topic: “Outstanding scientists of Kazakhstan: fate and historical heritage”, within the framework of which the works of historians of Kazakhstan who have made a significant contribution to the study of the history of Kazakhstan were studied: B.S. Suleimenova, R.B. Suleimenova, P.G. Galuzo, M.K. Kozybaeva, K.N. Nurpeis, B.A. Tulepbayeva and others. The performers prepared the works of Kazakh historians for reprinting, and also analyzed their scientific heritage from new methodological positions. An important aspect of the work is the introduction into scientific circulation of previously unpublished materials relating to the creative path, research work, as well as the private life of prominent historians of Kazakhstan.
Employees of the department are involved in various projects of the Institute.
2018-2020 employees of the department participated as performers in the following grant projects: “National military formations of Kazakhstan on the war fronts (1941-1945)” (project manager, chief researcher of the institute, Candidate of Historical Sciences Aldazhumanov K.S.); “Historical Encyclopedia of Kazakhstan” (supervisor – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor Rustemov S.K.); “Analytical research, updating and information support of the “Interactive scientific historical map “People of Kazakhstan” (supervisor, Doctor of History, Professor Kabuldinov Z.E.); took part in the project “Archives – 2025”.
Since 2021, the staff of the department has been the executors of research projects of grant funding and PCF: “Famine in Kazakhstan in 1921–1922 and its consequences (based on new archival and written sources)”; “Development of the academic publication “History of Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day” in 7 volumes”; “Soviet Kazakhstan: historical lessons of social and ethnic conflicts (1920-1991)”; “Unknown pages of the life and work of a prominent statesman Zhumabay Shayakhmetov”; “Famine in Kazakhstan in 1921-1922 and its consequences (based on new archival and written sources)”; “Developing a Brief History of Kazakhstan for a Foreign Audience” (2021‒2022); “The peasantry of Kazakhstan in the post-war decade: social transformation and everyday life”; “Educational activity of public organizations of Kazakhstan in the first quarter of the twentieth century”; “Mass political repressions in Kazakhstan in the 20-50s of the twentieth century and the processes of rehabilitation: the creation of a single database.”
In 1991-1993, a group of employees of the department led by K.S. Aldazhumanova published a collective monograph “The historical fate of the Kazakh sharua (peasants) (1900-1993)”. The work was written on the basis of new, previously unknown and inaccessible to researchers documents and materials stored in the special funds of the Central State Administration of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the archives of the KGB (KNB), the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan and regional archives, as well as materials stored in the archives of Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan. From the standpoint of new approaches and rethinking of historical events, materials from periodicals and literature on the topic were also used.
As a result, based on a new concept of covering the history of Kazakhstan, the monograph explores such problems as agrarian relations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Stolypin agrarian reform and the resettlement policy of the Russian Empire, the participation of Kazakh Sharuas in the national liberation movement, the activities of the Alash Orda, Kazakh Sharua during the revolutions and the Civil War. The history of agrarian reforms of the early 20s and the new economic policy in agriculture, socio-economic relations in the Kazakh village in the mid-20s are covered in a new way.
For the first time, special attention is paid to the history of forced collectivization, the forced transfer of the nomadic population to settled life, the peasant uprisings of 1929-1931, and the tragedy of the famine of 1931-1933. The scale of the famine and the number of its victims are determined. The work reveals the origins and extent of political repressions of the 30s and 40s. The events of the 20-30s are described in the context of the formation of the totalitarian regime and its features in Kazakhstan.
The work highlights the history of the peasantry of Kazakhstan during the war years from a new perspective. At the same time, special attention is paid to previously unexplored problems, such as the mobilization of the peasantry into the labor army, the placement of deported Germans, Chechens, Ingush, Karachais, Balkars, Kalmyks, Turks, Crimean Tatars, etc. in the republic. The period of development of virgin and fallow lands in Kazakhstan, reflects the development of agriculture in the 70-90s.
Under the leadership of Aldazhumanov K.S. the topic “Agrarian issue and repressions against the peasantry in Kazakhstan (1920-1940)” was studied in the Kazakh language.
The work is devoted to the actual problem of the history of Kazakhstan in the twentieth century. It explores the issues of agrarian reforms of the 1920s, the confiscation of property and livestock of bay (rich peoples of the Kazakh society) and kulaks, the suppression of peasant uprisings in 1929-1932, and the mass repressions of the late 20s and early 40s. On specific examples, the resistance movement of the Kazakh peasants against the violent methods of collectivization was proved, as well as the large-scale repressive measures of the state against the population was revealed.
On previously secret documents from a special folder of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the regional committee and the Central Committee of the CP (b) K, as well as other departments stored in the Central State Administration, the Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the KNB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the republic, the causes of mass political repressions of the 20-30s are traced and 1937-1938 For the first time, special attention is paid to the circumstances of the organization, on the instructions of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, of open trials in the regions and districts of Kazakhstan over leading party and Soviet workers and agricultural specialists. Based on the protocols of interrogations of the so-called “enemies of the people”, repressed in 1937-1938 and other documents, the mechanism of mass political repressions of the Stalinist regime is revealed for the first time. These materials make it possible to highlight the state policy of depeasantization in Kazakhstan from new positions, to reveal the cause and mechanism of repression.
In the work “Historical experience of defending the Fatherland”, specific examples show the historical experience of defending the Fatherland in the twentieth century. Particular attention is paid to the history of military construction in Kazakhstan in the 20-30s, the participation of Kazakhstanis in the battles on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War, the combat path of military units and formations, including national brigades and divisions, formed on the territory of Kazakhstan in 1920- 1944.
In connection with the 50th anniversary of the Victory in 1995, monographs by M.K. Kozybaeva and N.E. Edygenov “The working class of Kazakhstan – to the front”, as well as the monograph by P.S. Belan “Kazakhstani on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War”.
The staff of the department prepared for the publication “Transcript of the discussion on the book by E. Bekmakhanov “Kazakhstan in the 20-40s of the XIX century” (volume – 22 pp), which is an introductory scientific article (author K. Nurpeis) and the full text of the transcript of the discussion on named monograph by E.B. Bekmakhanov, held on June 14, 15, 16, 17 and 19, 1948 at the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. The reader of the book can trace the technology of the process of preparing the massacre of E. Bekmakhanov, the methods and techniques used in the 40-50s by political and punitive bodies, with the help of which an honest scientist turned into an “anti-Soviet” and “enemy” of the people.
In November 1991, to study the circumstances of the mass famine and political repressions of the 30s, a special Commission of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan was created, the work of which was headed at that time by the people’s deputy, an outstanding scientist, academician M.K. Kozybaev. Historians and jurists K.N. Nurpeis, G.S. Sapargaliev, M.K. Koigeldiev, T. Omarbekov, K.S. Aldajumanov, Zh.B. Abylkhozhin, Yu.I. Romanov, M.Zh. Khasanaev, M.B. Tatimov and others. At that time, the secretary of this commission was a senior official of the apparatus of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan, candidate of legal sciences S.A. Kasymov. Documents from previously closed archives were raised, including the OGPU-NKVD, materials from the “Special Folder of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bolsheviks of Kazakhstan.” It should be noted that the commission worked thoroughly and within a year, on the basis of the identified materials, the tragic picture of the famine and political repressions of the 30s was recreated for the first time, an assessment was made of non-legal acts and resolutions of party and state bodies that served as the basis for large-scale political repressions and persecution of the population in the 20-30s. The results of this work are now widely known. The results of the work of the commission were approved by the Supreme Council; the conclusion of the Commission was published on December 21 and 22, 1992 in the republican press.
Subsequently, based on the materials of the commission’s work, a documentary collection “Forcible collectivization and famine in Kazakhstan in 1931-1933” was published (Almaty, 1998). Detailed monographs by K.N. Nurpeisova “Alash and Alash-Orda”, M. Koygeldieva “Alash Movement” (Almaty, 1995), T. Omarbekova “Kazakh tragedy of the 20-30s.” (Almaty, 1999), in Russian by Zh. Abylkhozhin “Essays on the socio-economic history of Kazakhstan” (Almaty, 1999) and many other publications.
In 1999-2000, he participated in the preparation and publication of collections: “O. Jandosov. Documents and journalism (1918-1937) in 2 volumes; Transcript of the discussion on the book E.B. Bekmakhanov: “Kazakhstan in the 20-40s. Nineteenth century”; “Academician A. Nusupbekov: memories and research”; “Academician K.I. Satpaev. In 2003, a monograph by R.K. Nurmagambetova was published. “Movement of Alash and Alash-Orda” (historiography of the problem in the 1920s-1990s of the XX century). In 2004, a monograph “Culture and Politics” (State policy in the field of culture in Kazakhstan (1946-1991)” by A.T. Kapaeva was published. Smagulova S.O. was the compiler and one of the authors of the book “Alash kozgalysy”, as well as the book “Kolbai Togusov”.
Recently, the following materials have been published with the participation of the staff of the department: Zhetіsudagy mulіktі tarkileu tarikhinan: Kastek audany, 1928 zhyl: Qujattar zhinagy / From the history of the confiscation of property in Zhetysu: Kasteksky district, 1928: Collection of documents / Qurаstyrushylar: Tileubaev Sh.B., Orazov R.E., Zhunusova A.S., Kaldybekova R.M. – Almaty: “Arys” baspasy, 2021.- 375 bet.; “Top Secret”: declassified regulatory legal acts and documents. Sat. doc. T. 1. / Under the general. ed. K.E. Kusherbaeva. – Nur-Sultan, 2021. – 622 p.: Asanova S.A. Little-studied aspects of the history of the famine of 1921-1922. in Kazakhstan // edu.e-history.kz. 2021. No. 3 (27)); Aldazhumanov K.S., Stamshalov E.I. Kazakhstandagy memlekettik astyk pen et dayyndau sayasaty zhane sharualar koterilisteri (1928–1932). // Bulletin of Karaganda University. – Karagandy, 2021 – No. 3 (103) 2021 – 7-18 b.; Kapaeva A.T. Food policy of the Soviet power in Kazakhstan in the conditions of “War Communism” // edu.e-history.kz. 2021. No. 3(27); Shashaev A.K., Maksutova A.A., Tileubaev Sh.B., Mamraimov S.D. M.Kh. Dulatidin “Tarih-i-Rashidi” shygarmasy – mogolstan tarihynyn derekkozі (XIV ғ. ekіnshi zhartysy -XVI ғ. birinshi zhartysy) // Otan tarihy. 2021. No. 3. 32-41 bb.; Kabyldinov Z.E., Tileubaev Sh.B., Tylakhmetova A.S., Absadyk A.A. XVIII gasyrdyn ekіnshi zhartysyndaғy kazak sultandarynyn қogamdagy қyzmeti (Reseilik zhana muragat derekterі negіzіnde) // Otan tarihy. 2021. No. 3. 50-58 bb.; Tileubaev Sh.B., Belous S.G. Dur Saurambaev: Alash қozgalysyna atsalyskan kyrgyz ziyalysy // Abay atyndagy QazUPU KHABARSHY, “Tarikh zhane sayasi-aleumettik gylymdar” series, 2021. No. 4 (71). 173-179 bb.
Scientific, organizational and methodological work
Department of the history of Kazakhstan of the twentieth century in 2019 and early 2020 prepared and held a number of conferences: an international scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding Kazakh scientist K.I. Satpaev; republican conference “Kazakhs in the Second World War”; Republican scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 110th anniversary of the birth of Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nusupbekov A.N.; conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of G.F. Dachshleygra. On March 12, 2020, the audience of a remarkable scientist, academician Kenes Nurpeis, who for many years headed the department of the history of Kazakhstan of the Soviet period, made a huge contribution to the study of the history of the twentieth century, was opened. The media published articles on the life and work of K. Nurpeis.
On October 14, 2021, the Department of the History of Kazakhstan of the XX century organized and held a joint event of the Institute of History and Ethnology named after Ch.Ch. Valikhanov with the Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Archive and Society: Independent Kazakhstan in Persons. Creators of the Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Baidabek Akhmetovich Tulepbaev (October 10, 1921 – June 17, 2011)”.As part of the IX Nusupbekov readings, on December 9, 2021, the Republican scientific and practical conference was organized and held on the topic: “Soviet modernization in Kazakhstan: results and problems (1920-1991)”, dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan.