Bumyn Kagan(date of birth unknown – 552) – the first Turkic Kagan (Leader), founder of the Turkic Kaganate (State).


Bumyn Kagan in some sources is called Ilkhan. This is due to the fact that the first Turkic Khan Bumyn adopted the title of Ilkhan at the end of 552. In Chinese sources he is called Tumyn. This he took the first step towards the accession of other tribes. The literal meaning of the title “Ilkhan” is “ruler of peoples”. According to S.G. Klyashtorny, Bumyn Kagan – the founder of Turkic statehood. Having received the title of Kagan in 551, he managed to unite the Turkic peoples into one state – the Turkic Kaganate.

“When the Blue Sky appeared above and the Brown Earth below, the human race arose between the two. And my ancestors sat over the people – BumynKagan, IstemiKagan. Having ascended the kingdom, they established El (State) and established Chöryu (Law) of the Turkic people. With heads they made them bow their heads, with knees they made them kneel! To the east and west they settled their people. They were wise Kagans, they were courageous Kagans! ”

This is the story of past centuries, the beginning of the Turkic El and its first Kagans, their distant descendant Yollig-tegin – “Prince of a happy fate”, the first Turkic chronicler whose name and work are preserved. He inscribed in Turkic runic writing on the “eternal stone”, on two stelae crowned with figures of dragons, memorial lines to the deceased relatives – Bilge Kagan and Kul-tegin – and did not forget to mention the founders of the state. He repeated this text twice – in 732 and 735. Two stone slabs with inscriptions telling about the turbulent history of the Turkic people still lie in one of the intermountain basins of the Khangai, near the Orkhon River, where the rulers set up yurts and built palaces powerful empires [1].

What was behind the pathos of the first Turkic chronicler in real history?

In the I thousand years gradual change in the ethnic environment in the Eurasian steppes was began. The predominance here more and more passed to the Turkic-speaking tribes. Information about the origin and early history of the ancient Turks is mostly legendary. At the same time, there is no doubt that the basis of the Turkic traditions recorded in various sources was the echoes of some genuine events. It is no accident that genuine peoples and real geographical areas appear in them. An analysis of ancient Turkic myths contributes, if not to a reliable reconstruction, then at least to the formation of a general idea of ​​the origins of the ancient Turks. Both the Turkic legend (it is known in two versions) and Chinese historiography note that the genus Ashina during his life in East Turkestan adopted a new ethnic group – they mixed with local residents. In the territory where Ashina lived from the end of the 3rd century. Until 460, the Iranian (Sogdian) and Tochar (Indo-European) populations dominated, influencing the language and cultural traditions of Ashina. It was here that the beginning of close Turkic-Sogdian ties was laid, which had a huge impact on the entire culture and statehood of the ancient Turks.

The word “Ashina” has an Iranian etymology and means “blue, dark blue.” In the royal onomastics of East Turkestan, with which this name is associated, color designations take place. So, the royal family of Kuchi was called “white”, and the royal family of Khotan – “golden, golden.” Later, in 732–735, in large Orkhon inscriptions, in the section where the first Kagans are narrated, the people who inhabited the newly created empire are called kok Turk, in the usual translation – “blue (blue) Turks”. But the first word here is simply tracing paper, a Turkic translation of the generic name of the Turkic dynasty, and this combination should be translated differently: “koi and Turki”, i.e. “Ashina and the Turks.” The image of the she-wolf, the ancestor of Ashina, was just preserved by the memorial Bugutsky inscription.

According to the version that is perhaps the most widely spread in the literature and modern culture of the Turkic peoples, in ancient times one of the Hunnu tribes that lived on the western shore of the West Sea was attacked by enemies and was completely exterminated. Only a ten-year-old boy managed to survive. Enemies chopped off his legs and left him to die in a grassy lake near the ashes of a ravaged nomad. From the inevitable death of a child, a she-wolf rescues him by feeding him wild meat [2]. In the future, as a result of the connection, the she-wolf becomes pregnant from a boy. After some time, the ruler of a hostile people who destroyed the Hunnu tribe, learning about the miraculous salvation of the Hunnic offspring, sends its people with the order to kill the boy. Warriors carry out the command, also trying to kill the she-wolf, but she manages to save her life. She runs east into the mountains located northwest of Gaochang. There, the she-wolf finds refuge from her pursuers: “There is a cave in the mountains, and there is a plain in the cave, covered with dense grass for several hundred circles. There are mountains on all four sides of the cave. ” As L. N. Gumilyov quite rightly noted, the discussion here is rather about the valley. Here the she-wolf gives birth to ten sons at once. Having matured, they marry Gaochan women. The most intelligent and active of the sons of a she-wolf named Ashina becomes the head of this large family, rapidly growing in number and turned into a tribe. As a sign of respect to his mother, a new leader hangs a banner with a wolf head over the gates of his camp. One of the descendants of Ashina, Asyan-shad, becomes the initiator of the resettlement of his tribe to Mount Jinshan (Golden Mountain), where he recognizes himself as a vassal of Zhuanzhuan. Since that time, the main industry of the tribe has become the mining and processing of iron. Then the name “Turk” is assigned to them.

Traditionally, in the scientific works of Gaochang, according to the Chinese source, “Wei Shu” is identified with Turpan [3]. Accordingly, it is believed that the local settled population had a great influence on the Turks in the initial period. For example, S. G. Klyashtorny notes that “Ashina, during her life in East Turkestan, adopted a new ethnic group — mixed with local residents. In the territory where Ashina lived, from the end of the III century until 460, the Iranian (Sogdian) and Tohar (Indo-European) population dominated, influencing the language and cultural traditions of Ashina. It was here that the beginning of close Turkic-Sogdian ties was laid, which had a huge impact on the entire culture and statehood of the ancient Turks ”[1]. Mountain Jinshan mentioned in the legend is also almost unconditionally identified with Altai. Thus, the route of the Turks is as follows: West Bank of the West Sea – Turpan – Altai. Among other things, this also means that the contacts and mixing of the Turks with other ethnic groups in the early period of history (the marriage of the wolf’s sons to Gaochan women) had a fundamentally different character than previously imagined. Gaochan was inhabited by descendants of Chinese colonists, who for a long time were significantly influenced by neighboring Turkic tribes: “The robes of men are similar to Turkic. Women wear skirts and sludges; hair is collected in a bunch on the head. Ordinances and controls are somewhat similar to the Chinese. Their armament consists of a bow with arrows, a saber, a shield, an armor and a spear. Their letters are the same with the Chinese; but at the same time they also use Turkic writing. Although they are well studied to read Chinese, everyone speaks the Turkic language ”[3]. Accordingly, attempts to exaggerate the Iranian, Tohar, Sogdian influence in the initial stage of the formation of the ancient Turks, for example, by establishing the “Sak etymology” of the word “Ashina”, look very strained. The issue of the localization of the West Sea remains unclear, on the western shore of which the exterminated Hunnu tribe lived. Under the name “Shihai” in Chinese sources in different periods various bodies of water appear: Kuku-nor, Issyk-Kul, Balkhash, the Aral and Caspian Seas. In our opinion, a valid assumption in this case is the identification of Shihai with Lake Balkhash in antiquity and the Middle Ages, which was considered the sea, from where the wolf fled to the east, to the territory of modern Xinjiang. An additional argument in favor of this version is the existence in the same region of the Hunnic state of Yueban, which disintegrated in 490 under the blows of the Teles tribes [3]. It is possible that the legend reflected the dramatic pages of the final stage of the history of this state.

The second legend says that the roots of the Turks went back to the tribe of So, who lived in the north of the Hunnu. The leader of this tribe was a certain Apanbu, who had numerous brothers. Among them was Izhi-ni-nishydu, who was the son of a she-wolf and had the ability to control the weather. Due to the unreasonable management of Apanbu, the Co tribe was defeated by enemies. But Nishudu, thanks to his magic, managed to save his people. Nishudu had two wives, one of whom was a daughter of the spirit of summer and the other a daughter of the spirit of winter. Nishydu was succeeded by his eldest son, Nadulu Shad, who inherited a magical gift from his father and strengthened his possession. After the death of Nishudu, the power was inherited by his youngest son, Ashina, who surpassed his brothers in the competition and adopted the new name Asyan-shad. Ashina’s successor was his son Tuu. It is believed that under the name of the Co tribe in this case appears one of the Syanbi tribes, bearing the same name [1].

The third version of the origin of the Turks has also survived [2]. It lacks elements of mythology and, possibly, this was a reflection of the position of ancient Chinese scientists. According to this opinion, the Turkic tribe was formed from a mixture of different clans inhabiting Northern Liang, the last state of the Huns in Northern China. There it was called “Ashina.” When the emperor of Northern Wei Tai Udi made a successful campaign in Northern Liang in 439, the Ashina tribe fled to the Zhuanzhuan and began to mine iron in Altai. First of all, the direct connection between the Huns and the ancient Turks, noted by two of the three legends, attracts attention. Moreover, this connection is in every possible way also carried out in other Chinese sources. It is known, for example, that, having prevailed over the Turks, the Tang authorities in the 30s of the 7th century appointed two representatives of the house of Ashina to the Hunnic posts. “Ashina Zhong received the position of Josian Wang, and Ashina Nishu received the position of Yuxian Wang.” In this case, the Hunnic traditions were clearly imposed by the Chinese. When in 696 the Kagan Mojo was defeated by the Khitan, Empress Wuhou granted him the title of Shanyu – Tetszin Tzedilishi and Shanyu. Thus, the Chinese, if they did not invent it themselves, then supported the tradition of comparing “Huns – Turks”. It seems that stable ideas about the connection between the Huns and the Turks were clearly not random and were not the result of artificial constructions. The collapse of the last states of the Huns and the appearance of the ancient Turks in the historical arena share a time span of only a few decades. The connection between the Huns and the Turks was simply obvious and did not require special justification, which was reflected in the sources accordingly. The question remains unclear: on the basis of which of the branches of the Huns formed the original core of the ancient Turks: northern (Yueban) or southern (Northern Liang)? However, it is quite acceptable that in Altai there was a unification of the remnants of the Huns from both defeated states [1].

Analysis of the versions of the legend reveals two important circumstances. First, the four main ancient Turkic tribal groups, which preserved historical continuity in the later era, developed at a very early stage of Turkic ethnogenesis, when their genealogical kinship was still felt and imprinted in the narrative tradition. Secondly, according to the count of generations, the information preserved in the record of the VI century reflects the events of the V century or, possibly, the 4th – 5th centuries, occurring on the territory of the Eastern Tien Shan and Sayano-Altai (including the Mongolian Altai). The latter circumstance makes it possible to refer to the surviving fragments of descriptions of historical events and archaeological materials of that time.

Noting this fact, E.I. Kychanov writes: “The sovereign of the Turks carried the title Kagan, which” was similar to the ancient shanyu.” The Kagan’s wife had the title “Katun” (kehetun), which meant “the same as the ancient yanzhi”. It is not known who believed so, whether the Turks themselves, the Chinese informants or the Chinese, whose mental gaze was already open to the centuries-old history of Central Asia, but it is really not clear who linked the traditions of the Turks with the Hunnic tradition, made them followers of the Huns [4].

After moving to Altai, the Ashina clan is dependent on the Jujans who dominated Central Asia and pays tribute to them. Altai mountains and pastures suitable for the development of cattle breeding, iron ores played a decisive role in the political and economic strengthening of the family. For a hundred years, the leaders of the Ashina clan Asyan-shad, Tuu and Bumyn have conquered and annexed the possessions of local peoples to their territory. As a result of the increasing political significance of this tribal association, the new term “Turk” arose. At first it was applied only to the ruling elite of the Ashina clan, the ruling class, but it gradually turns into the name of the clan union, the ethnonym of the united population, and then the name of the state. This term, meaning “strong”, “powerful” (ie, “Turk”) was first found in the writings of Chinese authors in 542. The development of iron mines and developed blacksmithing made it possible to accumulate resources and gain strength in a small tribal association. Despite the fact that some part of iron and iron products was supplied free of charge as a tribute to the Zhuzhan, it was enough to sell to neighbors, as well as to use for their own weapons. A distinctive feature of the Turks was the presence of units of heavily armed plate cavalry. The descendants of the warlike Hunnu well remembered the glory of their ancestors and did not want to be content with their dependent position [2].

If the first rulers of the ancient Turks bore the title of shad (governor), then he ruled at the beginning of the VI century. the ancient Turks Tuu was already called the “great yabgu” (“dzhabgu”), which testified to the increased level of political claims. The future founder of the empire, Bumyn, who became the ruler of the ancient Turks in 534, continued his father’s line aimed at building his own statehood. An important role in all events was also played by the younger brother of Bumyn – Istemi, which is emphasized in the texts of runic written monuments [2].

In 542, Bumyn Kagan became the leader of the Ashina tribe. Until that moment, the Turks paid huge taxes to the Zhuzhans, and smelted iron for them. In the late 30s – early 40s of the VI century. Turkic units began to raid the outskirts of Western Wei. It soon became clear that the main reason for these incursions was the need for nomads to trade with China, which was hindered by the border authorities. The ruler of Western Wei Wen-di, in need of allies against East Wei and Zhuzhans, became interested in the emergence of a new people and decided in 545 to send an embassy to the ruler of the Turks – Bumyun and sent an ambassador to him – the Sogdian An-Nopenton – with rich gifts. Bumyn Kagan greeted the Chinese ambassador with honor and spent with allied intentions. This year is preserved in history as a year of official recognition at the international level of the Turkic tribal union. The testimony of a Chinese source clearly demonstrates the mood that prevailed among the Turks at that time: “In the horde everyone began to congratulate each other, saying: now an envoy from a great power has arrived to us: soon our state will also rise.” A year later, the Turkic ambassador makes a return visit to the headquarters of this emperor. Some historians associate the early era of the formation of the Great Turkic Kaganate precisely with these events of 545-547. Realizing that the time of the uprising against the Khan of Zhuzhans Anagui was not yet ripe, Bumyn continued to regularly pay tribute with items made of precious metal, thereby demonstrating his former loyal attitude towards him, and even suppresses the rebellion of the Zhuzhans. In response, Bumyn equipped the reciprocal embassy, ​​which arrived in Chang’an in 546. The emerging Turkic state established its first diplomatic relations. In fact, Bumyn already considered himself the ruler of the new state. For a complete formal recognition of the Turkic political elite, it remained only to intermarry with other ruling houses [5].

Bumyn did not raise the people to fight until his warriors gained strength, learned the art of war, and expected support from the Tele tribe (Turkic tribe). Among them, the closest was the Tele tribe, which also paid tribute to the Jujans. In 546, having gathered his army, Bumyn moved to the body tribe. First of all, Bumyn Kagan decided to unite related tribes. However, the leader of the Tele tribe did not want to submit to Bumyn. To get rid of the oppression of the Zhuzhany people, he decided to speak independently, but Bumyn, realizing the intentions of the leader of the body, settled down with his army in the gorge of the Altai Mountains. Those who approached the body decided to submit to the power of Bumyn. So in 546, the Tele tribe (according to Chinese sources, 50,000 yurts) became part of the future Turkic state. After this victory, Bumyn began to prepare for a campaign against the Zhuzhans.

The unification of the two kindred tribes did not bode well for the Zhuzhans Kagan Anaguy, but fearing the unification of the Turks with the Chinese, he could no longer act openly. Now Bumyn Kagan himself decided to meet with Anaguy on the battlefield in order to achieve complete freedom of the Turks. To fully recognize Bumyn, the Kagan needed a political marriage with one of the recognized powers, and he made an appropriate request to the Anaguy of the Zhuzhans Khan. Anagui was outraged and offended by this offer and answered rudely: “You, my blacksmith, how dare you make such an offer?” The Turkic Kagan in anger ordered the execution of the Zhuzhany envoy, who delivered the return message. War has become inevitable. But the ruler of Western Wei, Wen Di, reacted kindly to the similar proposal and in 551 married Princess Changle to a Turkic “yabgu”. Anagui was indignant at these events and he equipped the army for the complete subjugation of the Turks. This was what Bumyn wanted: by entering into an alliance with the Wei state and marrying the Chinese princess Chanle in 551, in 552 he led a large army and went on a campaign against the Zhuzhans and defeated them. Unable to withstand shame, Anagui committed suicide.

The Chinese, fearing the military art of the commanders of the Bumyn Kagan, sought to establish friendly relations with him. The Chinese ambassador informed that their rulers recognize the Turks as equal to themselves.

Historians compare Bumyn with Spartak. He, born a slave, at the end of 552 died Ilkhan, i.e. Khan of peoples. Bumyn Kagan, who achieved independence for his people, did not live long after this great victory. In the same year, Bumyn was raised by the Turkic nobility on a white bag and was proclaimed Il Kagan, and his wife received the title Khatun. A new state was built. A few months after the accession to the throne, Bumyn died. His successor was his son Kara, who ruled under the name of Issyk Khan. He managed to defeat the new Zhuzhans ruler of Dynshuzy, who tried to revive the former power of the steppe power, but also died soon.


Bumyn Kagan – a truly great personality, but underestimated by domestic historians. Much of what we know about him is known to us from Chinese sources. How is he dear to us, and what place does his figure occupy in our history? Bumyn Kagan was the founder of the first Eurasian empire, uniting all known civilizations. In addition, there is still no assessment of those truly planetary scEls of change. The Turkic Kaganate under the leadership of Bumyn, not only became the initiator of the tradition of political domination of nomads over settled agricultural civilizations, he became a symbol of grandiose changes in the ethnic settlement of the entire Great Steppe, from Hungary to the Far East. Turkic El became the site of the emergence of new political and military reforms. So, it was the Turks, being our direct ancestors, who were able to approve the new order of indirect inheritance of power (the specific staircase system, where power was transferred from uncle to nephew and from brother to brother, with alternate inheritance of certain destinies), which began to spread to remote regions ( Kievan Rus, nomadic states, for example, the Kazakh Khanate).

The ancient Turks themselves called their power El. In runic monuments, solemn forms are also recorded: the Eternal El, the Divine El. The ancient Turks called themselves Kok-Turks – heavenly Turks. The main symbol of the Eternal El was the golden head of the wolf, which adorned the banners. This expressed respect for the memory of the foremother of the she-wolf and emphasized the military superiority of the Turks, as we will indicate in more detail below. In the texts of runic inscriptions, the Turks are likened to wolves, and their opponents are compared with sheep. Elite squads of heavy cavalry were also called Bori – wolves. The supreme ruler of El – the Kagan could only be a representative of the Ashina dynasty. Kagan was considered a representative of the sacred clan created by the will of Tengri. Although the power of the Kagan was inherited, there was a ceremonial rite of intronization, in which dignitaries and the tribal nobility took part. The Kagan was raised on a nightmare and carried 9 times in a circle in the direction of the sun. All representatives of the ruling clan were called tegin – “princes of blood”. Only they could lay claim to the highest state posts after the Kagan of the jabgu and shads, under whose authority the main areas of the Kaganate were located. Management at different levels of government was carried out by the Eltebras, Yerkins, Tarkhans, Tutuks, and other officials. Public positions could be inherited or acquired by virtue of personal merits to the state and society as a brave man (alip) or a sage (bilge). Turkic laws (Torah) were codified. Describing the possession of Kang, Chinese sources reported that it “contains the Turkic code stored in the temple. When determining the punishment, they take this code and decide the case. ” The most serious crimes against the state (rebellion, high treason), against the person (murder), against morality (connection with a married woman) and against property (theft of a confused horse) were punishable by capital punishment, the death penalty. In the case of especially serious crimes, collective responsibility could be applied, and together with the criminal all his relatives could be executed. Other crimes were punishable by fines and payments in favor of the injured party. So, the perpetrator of the theft of livestock had to pay ten times the damage or give his daughter. The principles of state organization of the Turkic Kaganate were of a pronounced military character. Political institutions, legislation, an economic organization, state ideology – everything was subordinated to the main goal – preparation for war and the conduct of hostilities. All dignitaries, governors, governors in wartime became commanders of specific combat units. Every man was a warrior. “For glory they consider dying in the war, for shame – ending their lives from illness,” Chinese sources characterized the customs of the Turks. Only in this way could the Turkic Kaganate resist agricultural states that possessed many times superior mobilization opportunities. Advisor to the Turkic Kagans, Tonyukuk, said: «The Turkic people in size cannot be compared with the proportion of population in China, and that they can oppose this state, this is because the Turks, following grass and water, are engaged in hunting, do not have a permanent residence and practice only in military affairs». Bold, excellently skilled weapons and disciplined, Turkic warriors made a great impression on eyewitnesses. “If a thousand Turkic horsemen pull a bowstring and shoot at once, a thousand horsemen will be killed, and after such an onslaught nothing will remain of the army. Neither the Kharijits nor the Bedouins can shoot so galloping, but the Turk equally accurately shoots both the beast, and the bird, and targets during competitions, and people, and still stuffed animals, established images, and birds of prey. Shooting, he makes the horse gallop back and forth, left and right, up and down. He manages to fire ten arrows before Kharijit manages to fire one. His horse takes off onto the slopes of the mountains and sinks to the bottom of the gorges with ease, inaccessible to charijit, even on flat terrain. The Turk has four eyes: two in the front and two in the back of the head, ”al-Jahiz wrote enthusiastically in his essay.

The ancient Turks had a tremendous influence on the development of weapons and military art of the Middle Ages. Yu.S. Khudyakov notes: “Having won numerous military victories in the nomadic world and subjugated almost all the nomadic tribes of the steppe belt of Eurasia, the ancient Turks became trendsetters in everything that was connected with military affairs. Their nomadic vassals and many sedentary peoples, who were in direct military contact with the powerful ancient Turkic military power – the First Turkic Kaganate, began to orientate themselves at their weapons, military and horse equipment, military organizational structure [6]. The basis of the Turkic army was light cavalry, which began every battle. Without engaging in close combat, riders showered the enemy with a hail of whistling arrows from tight bows. The main task was to shake the hostile troops, to force them to somehow break the order in order to identify a place for attack”.If the Turks knocked together in the army, then everyone sees the enemy’s weak spot in battle, but if there isn’t such a place and nothing will seduce them, and there is an opinion to withdraw, then everyone will come to this conclusion and everyone will understand that he’s right,” Al-Jahiz wrote about this. When the battle formations of the enemy were shaken and a breach was discovered for the blow, the elite “bori” armored forces armed with long spears were attacked. They had to crush the enemy and decide the outcome of the battle. One of the revolutionary changes in the field of military affairs, which became widespread for the first time in the Turkic armies, was the use of a saddle with a rigid skeleton and stirrups. The support for the trunk and legs significantly increased the impact force of the cavalryman stabbing and chopping weapons. A convenient and effective weapon of a new type, created by the Turks, was a curved saber, which made it possible to deliver quick and dangerous blows in close combat [6].

Bumyn Kagan, we believe, restored the entire structure of the state of the Huns. It should be noted that in the Kaganate (under him or during the reign of his son Mugan Kagan), such well-known senior posts were established during the Middle Ages as the “Jabgu (Yabgu) Kagan” – the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the patron of the whole country. There were other titles, which indicates a developed state apparatus.

According to S.G. Klyashtorny, Bumyn Kagan – the founder of Turkic statehood [1]. This he took the first step towards the accession of other tribes. The literal meaning of the title “Ilkhan” is “ruler of peoples”. Having received the title of Kagan in 551, he managed to unite the Turkic peoples into one state – the Turkic Kaganate. The founder of the Great Turkic Kaganate Bumyn laid the foundation for trade cooperation, the establishment of diplomatic relations with neighboring possessions.


The memory of Bumyn Kagan has not yet been reflected in the toponymy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, since the historical memory and historical identity of modern Kazakhstan do not correlate with the Turkic era. Only today, we see individual attempts to popularize the history of the founding of the Turkic Kaganate, for example, in the mass literature (Begalin K. Bumyn Kagan. Aruna, 2007).

What is the importance of the personality of the founder of Turkic El? What is the relevance of its further study? To answer these questions, a clear understanding and knowledge of Russian history is necessary. Turkic El is a direct ancestor of the Kazakh Khanate, the title “Khan”, according to Turkologists, is the modern scoring of the title “Kagan”, although according to another version, the title “Kagan” was assigned to the Ashina dynasty in the mass consciousness.

List of references:

1. Klyashtorny S. G., Savinov D. G. Steppe empires of ancient Eurasia. – SPb., 2005.

2. Gumilev L.N. Ancient Turks. – M., 1967.

3. URL: https://e-history.kz/en/contents/view/istoriya_turkskogo_Kaganata__5172.

4. Kychanov E.I. History of the Tangut state. (Series “Historical research”). – SPb., 2008.

5. Zuev Yu.A. Early Turks: Essays on Ideology. – Almaty: Dyke-Press, 2002.

6. Khudyakov Yu.S. Golden wolf head on battle banners: Weapons and wars of ancient Turks in the steppes of Eurasia. – SPb .: Petersburg Oriental Studies, 2007.

Author: Uzhkenov E.M.,Ph.D.