Mukan-Kagan (Unknown 572) was the second son of the founder of the Turkic ale – Bumyn Kagan, who ruled Turkic Kaganate from 553 and 572. The new Kagan was the younger brother of the late Kagan – Kush, who went down in history under his throne name Mukan-Kagan (553-572). He became one of the most prominent rulers of the Turkic Khaganate, turning the still, in fact, unknown state into a powerful Empire.

Chinese sources described it as follows: “He was firm, cruel, brave, and had a lot of intelligence; he was more engaged in war… From the East from the Korean Gulf to the Western sea up to 10,000 Li, from the South from the Sandy steppe North to the North Sea, from five to six thousand Li – – all this space of land was under his power. He became a rival to the Middle Kingdom.”

An outstanding ruler, during whose reign the Turkic El reached the highest point of its development. A military leader, administrator, politician, and warrior, Mukan Kagan put a lot of effort into raising the state. It was Mukan-Kagan who initiated the reforms that later became classic for all other States.


In 552, the Great Turkic Khaganate was founded, but the its Bumyn Kagan passed away in the same year. The heirs of Bumyn Kagan — the son of Kara Issyk Kagan was destined to rule the Kaganate for only a year. Mukan-Kagan was the second son of Bumyn. His older brother Kara Issyk Khan died shortly after the battle of mount Lingshan (he ruled for about a year). Issyk Khan had son Niytu, but according to the custom of Аshin, the throne passed from brother to brother, and they decided to raise Mukan to the throne. He had a long hair, red face and bright eyes. By nature, he was firm, loved war, and had a clear mind.                                                                                                    

  Upon assuming the throne, the Mukan Kagan continued the war with the remnants of the Zhuzhans and defeated their Kagan, Deng Shu Tzu, who fled to one of the Chinese kingdoms – Wei. Despite the defeat, the Zhuzhan Khaganate repeatedly organized campaigns against the Turks. But they all ended in vain. And under the Turkic Khagan Mukan in the autumn of 553 year, the Zhuzhani suffered another crushing defeat, after which the Zhuzhan Khaganate greatly weakened and fell into decline. In relations with China, Mukan followed a policy of Alliance with Western Wei against Bay Qi. Kagan demanded that Wei issue the remaining Zhuzhans. The Wei agreed, and the Turks executed 3,000 Zhuzhan men at the gates of the capital. Nevertheless, women and children were spared. Since then, the Turks have become the sole rulers of the Eastern part of the great steppe. Then, in the North, they conquered the lands of nomadic tribes that stretched to the Sayan mountains, and in the East-up to the Chinese river Huanhe, subjugating the tribes of the Kayis (tatabs), Kidans, Oguz-Tatars, and others (1).

The rulers of Northern China, divided by civil strife into two States – Qi and Zhou, began to pay tribute to Mukan Kagan in order to attract his favor and favor. According to preserved information, only one part of divided China – Zhou annually presented 100 bales of silk fabric to the Turkic Khagan. It is likely that the” gifts ” of Qi were not inferior in volume.

In 556, the Turks declared war (with Wei’s consent), and defeated them. In 558-561, Kagan exchanged gifts with Beizhou 4 times. The alignment of forces in Northern China led to a war between the Yuwen (Bei Zhou) and the Kao (Bei Qi), and the Turks needed help to defeat the Qizhous. Kagan decided to give his daughter (in the sources of the Empress Ashina) to Yuwen Yong, but the Qing also began to ask for marriage and offered good gifts. Seeing that Mukan was hesitant, Wu-di sent Yang Yang (the Governor of Liangzhou) and Yuwen Qi to negotiate with Kagan. Mukan married his daughter to Wu-di and prepared for a joint campaign against Qi. Yang Jian (the founder of Sui dynasty) with 10,000 soldiers crossed the Henli mountains and joined the 100,000 army of Mukan. The Chinese besieged Jinyang, thinking that the war was prolonged, Kagan began to plunder the Chinese lands and returned home, which angered the Chinese command, but Wu-Di decided not to quarrel. 

              Mukan advised Wu-Di to continue the war. In 563, Kagan went to join Yang Jiang, but Wang Hu lost the battle, and the joint attack of Luoyang, the capital of then-China, failed. From 563 to 572, Mukan exchanged embassies with Zhou several times, for example, he received Cheng shun, Finance Minister Yuwengui, Gong Dou Yi, and Yang Jian(1).

In the years of his rule the Turkic Khaganate reached political dominance in Central Asia. Was conquered by the Khitans in Manchuria, the Kyrgyz on the Yenisei river. They became a tributary of the Northern Chinese state. After the conquest of neighboring tribes in the East, the Turks began to make conquests to the West. The younger brother of Kagan Bumyn Istemi Yabgu led a military campaign of 10 Turkic “tumens” (Tumen – a group of 10 thousand warriors), to the West of the great steppe. With these forces, he conquered the Sogdians, and then the tribes who lived at the Northern foot of the Altai. To the North of the Aral Sea, the Turks came into contact with the khionites (perhaps they were Iranian-speaking descendants of the Sarmatians) and the Ogori (they are identified with the Ugrs). By 558 year, all of them were subdued, after which the Turks became masters in the Ural steppes.

Here they met with the Hephthalites whose possessions stretched from the Caspian Sea to Northern India and Eastern Turkestan. The Turks achieved domination over Central Asia in the war with the Eftalite state, which they crushed in 561-687 years. At the same time, the North Korean States of Qin and Zhou became tributaries of the Turkic power. It included the rich oases of Tokharistan, Chach, Ferghana, and Khorezm. The governors of the Kagan collected tribute in the cities of the future Khazars, Crimea, on the shores of the Black and Caspian seas. But there remained the danger posed by the state of Hephtalites. Therefore, Istemi was forced to change the direction of his campaign in Central Asia. He explained his decision this way: “After I defeat the Hephtalites and attack the Avars, they won’t even run away from my puppy.”Istemi’s his daughter for the Iranian Shah Khosrov I Anu-Shirvan, and concludes an Alliance with him against the Hephthalites. Continuous diplomatic communication is established between these States. According to Firdousi, the Turkic ambassadors going to Iran were captured by the Hephtalites on their way and put to death by the order of the Ephtalite king Gatifar. After this event, Istemi gathers all the power in one fist and, having captured the Tashkent oasis, the Chirchik region, through Maymurg, comes close to the Zerafshan valley. At this time the king of Gadifer its main force kept near Bukhara. Between these two forces was a war that lasted eight days and the Hephthalites were defeated. In the 561-563 years the Turks have concluded with Iran antiflamitory Union. In 564-year, Shah of Iran Khosrow Anushirvan (531-579) took the important strategic region of Tokharistan from the Hephtalites. The main forces of the Hephtalites were defeated by the Turks in 587 near Bukhara. The border of the spheres of political influence of Iran and the Western Turkic Khaganate was the Amu Darya. After the conquest of Central Asia, the Turks became masters of the trade silk road to the Mediterranean countries (1).

Thus, by 555 year, the Turks had already captured the lands up to the Aral Sea without encountering any strong resistance. In a short time, they conquered a huge territory from China to the Amudarya, the entire Syrdarya region. In Central Asia, the Hephtalites (sedentary tribes of Central Asia who lived on the lands from the Caspian Sea to Northern Hindustan and Eastern Turkestan) resisted the Turks, which is why the Turks, to restore their strength, temporarily abandoned further campaigns. The Turks were able to completely conquer them only ten years later – in 563-567 years.

In 565 year, in the battle of Nessef, the Turks led by Istemi won, and Sogdy was attached to the Khaganate.

From the North Chinese States, the Turks received about 200,000 pieces of silk annually, which significantly exceeded their needs. The most profitable market for this silk was Byzantium, and it was possible to trade with it only through Iran. However, Iran itself was a major producer of silk and was hostile to the proposals of the Turks.

Since the Turks and the Sogdian tribes under their rule were interested in direct trade relations with Byzantium, in 568 year Istemi Kagan sent a Turkic Embassy headed by the Sogdian merchant Maniachus to the Byzantine capital Constantinople. It proposed a Treaty of mutual trade and military Alliance against the Persians and Avars.

The Byzantine Emperor Justin II was delighted with the unexpected ally, as he was preparing for war with both Iran and the Avar Khaganate. Without delay, he sent a return Embassy led by the commander by Zemarkh, also awarded a special honor at the court of Istemi. In the future, Byzantium and the Turkic Khaganate often exchanged ambassadors, coordinating their actions against common opponents.

During the war, which began in 568 year, the Turkic army crossed the Amudarya, took several cities, but soon retreated back due to the fact that it could not overcome the network of border fortifications of the Persians, created to protect them from the Hephtalites. In 571 year, the Turks and Persians concluded a peace agreement and agreed on a clear division of territory. Iran has pledged to pay tribute to the Turks in the amount of 40,000 gold dinars annually and not to interfere with trade (1).

On the Avar front, things were much more successful. By 571 year, Turkic troops had captured the territory of the North Caucasus, and in 576, the Bosphorus. The Northern route was opened for trade with Byzantium.

Thus, the rule of the Turkic Khaganate in the second half of the VI century in Central Asia and Eurasia spread to the vast territories of the continent. And the Turkic Khaganate became a powerful power in its political sphere position. In the West, the new Kagan defeated the rulers (the Hephthalites), in the East pacified the Kidans, and in the North the Qi tribe. Now the Turkic Khaganate stretched from East to Wes1t for 5000 km, and from South to North for 2500-3000 km. The power of the Khaganate during its heyday (the rule of Mukan-Khagan, 553-572) spread over vast territories from the Don to the Amur and from the Yenisei to the foothills of Tibet. That is, on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. In the steppes of the black sea region, Mukan-Kagan, son of Kagan Istemi and a Byzantine Princess, fought in Alliance with Byzantium against Iran and made a victorious campaign against China in the region of Kashgaria and Uyghur.

A Treaty was drawn up between the Turks and Iran, according to which the peoples inhabiting the Northern side of Amu-Darya had to pay tribute to Istemi. But a little time passed, and an irreconcilable enmity began between the two allies. The reason for this hostility was the refusal of the Iranian Shah Khosrou to allow silk merchants to pass through his territory to Byzantium. Persian merchants continued to make huge profits at the expense of the ancient “great silk road”. The Turkic Khaganate also expected to be enriched by this trade route that runs through Central Asia. Therefore, with the support Istemi ambassadors led by Maniah, Sogdian, arrived in Iran. But Shah Khosrow not only did not comply with their request, but even in front of the ambassadors ordered the burning of silk fabrics presented to him as a gift. Ambassadors Istemi sent to Iran with a similar request also was returned with no response.

After that, in 568, Istemi sends his ambassadors to Byzantium (Urum), led by Maniachus. They arrive in Constantinople on the North. side of the Caspian Sea, across the Caucasus. The Byzantine Emperor Justin II receives the Turks in a warm, confidential atmosphere, supporting their proposals and expressing understanding about trade relations and their anti-Iranian sentiments. He, along with the Turkic ambassadors sent their ambassadors, headed by zemarkh. Istemi in 569 in the mountains of Aktag (in the Eastern Tenir-Too), solemnly accepting the Zemarch, signed an agreement with Byzantium. Then sends their ambassadors headed Tamatar Khan in Constantinople. Sometime after that, Istemi Kagan and his army went on a campaign against Iran. In the Talas valley, Istemi receives the ambassadors of Shah Khosrow. Istemi, in the presence of the Byzantine Ambassador Zemarchus, reprimanded them and officially accused Iran of refusing to pay the tribute that had previously paid to the Hephtalites, but then pledged to pay to the Turkic Khaganate. The Turkic army continues its campaign, marching victoriously, capturing several Iranian cities in Zhuzhan and seaports along the way. In 571, Istemi Kagan concluded a peace Treaty with the Shah of Iran, according to which the Amu -Darya river became the demarcation line — the border between the two States. In addition, Shah Khosrou pledged to pay tribute to the Turks annually in the amount of 40 thousand gold coins. Such an end to the Iran-Turkic war could not but worry Constantinople. Six ambassadors from Byzantium visited the Turkish headquarters in a short period of time. The Byzantine ambassadors, led by Valentine, insisted that the Turks, following the requirements of the previous Treaty concluded with the Byzantines in 568, continue the war with Iran. But the regional ruler of the Turkic Khaganate, Turksanf, received the Byzantine ambassadors very rudely. As a response to the Byzantine demands, the Turkic army captured the Bosphorus in 576 with the support of the Uygurs. It reached the Crimea and the Byzantine possessions in the Western Caucasus. This is the end of the Turkic campaigns to the West. This is explained by the beginning of internal strife in the Kaganate itself. As a result of these conquests, the Khaganate began to control all important sections of the great silk road, which provided the Turkic nobility with huge profits from the caravan trade.


In addition to the actual military and political activities, Mukan Kagan carried out major reforms, the principles of which outlined the future contours of all early medieval States without exception. The main areas of reform were:

1. State system

2. Military affairs

3. Type of business

4. Culture

5. Slavery and other social organizations.

If we consider them in order of priority, it should be noted that the ancient Turks created a kind of center of civilization. There are qualitatively new forms of life, new communication tools-settlement and urbanization of the population, the construction of cities (2).

All this could not but affect the social and political organization of society. The main feature of identification and source of political unity of the Turkic nomads of Eurasia was the dynastic and structural heritage of the Turkic Empire and its associated traditions. In ancient Turkic written sources, the paradigm of power in the Khaganate is stated: Bodun-El-Teru (“people – state-law”) (3).

The ancient Turks themselves called their country El. In runic monuments, solemn forms are also recorded: “Mangilik El” (Eternal country). The ancient Turks called themselves Kok-Turkis-celestial Turks. The main symbol of the Eternal country was the Golden head of the wolf that decorated the banners. This was a way of expressing respect for the memory of the mother wolf and emphasizing the military superiority of the Turks. In the texts of runic inscriptions, the Turks are likened to wolves, and their opponents are compared to sheep. Elite units of heavy cavalry were also called Bori-wolves (3).

Even before Istemi Khan made a campaign to the North Caucasus, subjugated the Bulgarians and Khazars. The Western border of the Turkic Khaganate reached the sea of Azov and crossed the Byzantine border at Bosporus. The power of the Turks reached the height of its power. (Under Mukan-Kagan, the territory of the Kaganate, which extended from Khingan to Kuban, was divided into four appanages, and under his successor, Tobo-Khan, it was divided into eight. At the head of each lot was a close relative of the Kagan from the Ashin family. The headquarters of the Kagan was located near the Altai, in the original Turkic lands). In the Turkic States, there was no class (Wu-Di the ruling dynasty) whose representatives had hereditary privileges.

However, in the ancient Turkic States, there were people who were granted a number of privileges for life. They were called “Tarkhans”. Science does not have accurate information about the nature and boundaries of the rights and privileges of Tarkhans. At the same time, there are reports in historical sources about the privileges of the Tarkhans in the Mongol state, the structure of government in which was borrowed from the Turks. These privileges are as follows: 1) Tarkhan is exempt from any kind of taxes and forced labor (Barschiny); 2) he has the right to receive a certain share of military and hunting production; 3) Tarkhan has the right to an a audience with the Khan, without asking for special permission each time; 4) except for particularly serious crimes, Tarkhan’s misdeeds were forgiven nine times; 5) during solemn ceremonies and celebrations, Tarkhan takes a place of honor and is presented with a glass of wine (4).

In connection with the activity in the West, a new stage of ethno genesis of the Turks is moving to the territory of the great steppe and covers the oases of Turkestan. This stage led to a new level of ethnic contacts and economic symbiosis with the Eastern Iranian world. Within the framework of a single state, literary language and writing appear, and then General Imperial standards in culture, especially expressed in material culture (homes, clothing, saddle with stirrup, harness, jewelry). These processes reflected the beginning of a new ethnic order. All this resulted in the formation of a pan-Turkic ethnic identity and pan-Turkic ideology. The Turkic Khaganate included such peoples as the Kirghiz, Kipchaks, Oguz, and Avar tribes, as well as the Kidani, and others. the Ruler of the state was the Kagan -the Supreme ruler, military commander, and owner of all lands. The capital of the Khaganate was the city of Suyab (5).

The high skill of the ancient Turks is evidenced by the statements of the Arab chronicler “the Turk will shoot 10 arrows before the Arab puts one on the string” (6).

Information has been preserved that reveals the development of military Affairs among the ancient Turks. Military service (“blood tax”) was one of the most important and common duties in the Turkic Empire. Military traditions were of great importance in the life of nomads. If we take into account that in the Saka society, the carrying of weapons was the duty of every man, then the same tradition was preserved among the Turks, when in the Usun society it was a privilege of a certain class. The main duty of men was to protect the family, property, and conduct wars. The Turks taught their children archery from the age of three. Many Turkic women were excellent shooters and horsewomen.

The Turks used the Asian system of division of troops, built on the territorial-tribal principle. According to the instructions of the Kagan, each tribe is assigned a specific land space on which it was supposed to roam. In each such tribe, the yurts were United into tens, hundreds, and in numerous tribes into thousands under the control of special military-territorial chiefs. The division of troops into tens, hundreds, thousands, and mists (darkness) allowed the Turkic khagans to assemble an army and form command units in a short time. The recruited troops were supplied with the necessary food, supplies and equipment. With the dissolution of the army at home, some of the troops were not disbanded until the new war, but remained in a state of combat readiness.

The military aristocracy played a major role in the life of the Turks. The Kagan, who did not receive the approval of the army, could not hold the throne. But at the same time, the unquestionable authority of the Supreme leader (Kagan) formed the basis of discipline in the Turkic troops. The Turks were not allowed to leave the battlefield until the banner of the chief was raised. A flag cut down meant the death of a leader or defeat,

The appointment of senior officers was made by Kagan himself. In that era, especially valued exclusively individual qualities-courage, prowess, courage, endurance, physical strength, which determined the suitability of a warrior for the role of leader.

The entire military glory of the Turkic army was entirely in its cavalry, it consisted of light and heavy cavalry, otherwise called archers and swordsmen. The main weapons of the first were bows and arrows. Archers were the first to enter the battle and were usually used in loose combat.

The archer’s main offensive weapons were curved swords and pikes, and each had a battleaxe and Mace.

Armored (heavy) cavalry was used in close and hand-to-hand combat and formed the striking backbone of the Turkic army. Heavy horse masses were formed in several lines in a convenient place to strike at the enemy, i.e. the Turks accumulated experience in close combat.

The Turks were the first to use a rigid saddle and stirrups, which increased the fighting qualities of the cavalry.

In the military art of the Turks, a significant place was given to secret intelligence. Secret intelligence was divided into three types:

• strategic;

• tactical;

• troop.

Strategic intelligence was supposed to deliver information about the military and economic potential of the enemy and its allies, which allowed us to develop our own strategy for preparing and conducting war. The task of strategic intelligence also included the introduction of spies into the enemy side to disorganize the enemy’s forces. Spies United the discontented, incited to treason by bribery. in some cases, they used spiritual and physical terror, instilling mutual distrust among the allies.

Tactical intelligence was engaged in collecting information about the terrain, weapons, organization, tactics and equipment of the enemy army.

Military intelligence collected operational information about the movements of enemy troops (6).

In addition to Arkhans, in the Turkic States, certain privileges were granted to persons of worship (priests) with the right to use them for life. The Supreme ruler of Kaganate could only be a representative of the Ashin dynasty. Kagan was considered a representative of the sacred family, created by the will of Tengri. The Kagan headed the state: he acted as a chief, was the Supreme judge, the high priest, served as a military leader who subordinated other tribes and countries and forced them to pay tribute and taxes.

In the Turkic States, there was no “state religion” that the entire population was obliged to practice. The principle of religious freedom was typical for them. The Turks understood the meaning of toleration earlier than other peoples. The population of the South Uyghur khanates professed Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism, and Manichaeism. All adherents of these religions and religious movements enjoyed complete freedom in performing rites (5).

Among the documents preserved from the ancient Turkic and ancient Uighur periods, there is also a firman issued, apparently, to the Christian Turkic community by bilge Tengri Elik Khan. The document exempts the community from tax on land plots and vineyards, and its individual members from all tax duties. It shows that in the Uyghur khanates, freedom from paying taxes was enjoyed not only by individual Ministers of worship, but also by religious communities (societies). However, with the exception of these privileges, the majority of the population of the Turkic States had equal rights.

The population was engaged in nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle breeding. Wintering areas were located in the valleys of the Ili, Chu, Talas, Irtysh, and Syr Darya rivers. The main means of transportation was a horse. Arkan, Cohen, Zheli (types of leash), Buida (a rope for driving camels), Shylbyr (long reins for tying horses), and Kuruk (a long pole with a loop for catching horses) were widely used in the Turkic economy.

The dead, as shown by archaeological excavations, were burned by the Turks at the stake, and the ashes were buried. This custom is associated with the cult of fire worship.

In the ancient Turkic khaganates, the solution of many economic problems depended on trade. No raids, no wars, no loot from them, and constant barter served as a source of prosperity for the nomads. During the period of the Empire, the Turks became masters of most of the great silk road. Sogdian merchants who concentrated a huge amount of silk fabrics of their own and Chinese production in their hands became the trusted representatives of the Turkic khans in this matter. Through Sogdian merchants, nomads sold their cattle products, as well as military loot. Merchants brought them to Byzantium via Iran. The fate of the silk road depended on the relations between the three great States. This partnership led to the conclusion of a military Alliance between the Turks and the Byzantine Empire against Iran (in 567). Iran’s refusal to establish relations forced the Turks to seek new territories for the export of silk. Thus, a road was laid through the Volga region. Other routes connecting Siberia and the Volga region with Central Asia passed through the steppes of Kazakhstan. One of the most ancient ways of communication was the Meridian route between Turkestan and Siberia, through the steppes of Kazakhstan. Perhaps this route is much older than others (for example, the great silk road), since the South and North of the great steppe were in the same economic and cultural system. Even in ancient times, part of the nomads went to winter camps in the South, besides the main urban centers were located there. In the bronze age, copper and other metals were transported along the Great Meridian path.

The urban culture of the Turkic Khaganate was created with the participation of Sogdians. In the V-VIII Centuries, with the support of the Turks, the Sogdians created a large number of trade settlements in Semirechye, Dzungaria, Eastern Turkestan, and southern Siberia. A significant part of the population was engaged in farming, trade and crafts (7).

In General, we can talk about a General Turkic complex that included material culture, ideological ideas and spiritual thoughts that were widely spread throughout the territory in the second half of the 1st Millennium ad. The culture of nomadic tribes and settled regions acts in organic integrity and forms a single cultural system. Various cults of sacred mountains, rivers, caves, snakes, and wolves were common among the Turks. At Kimak tribe was in great veneration, the cult of the river. They talked about Irtysh – “the river is the God of man” / Gardizi/. The banners of the ancient Turks were decorated with a wolf’s head. Along with their own beliefs, the nomadic Turks were also interested in other religious systems: Buddhism, Manichaeism, Christianity, and Judaism. The most remarkable thing in the culture of the ancient Turkic period is the appearance of runic writing and rich written literature. Runic texts in honor of bilge-Kagan, Kultegin and other prominent figures of the Turkic ale are both outstanding literary works and historical evidence of the era.

The peak of the achievement was its own writing, which went from stone steles to manuscripts on paper. The Kimaks had their own written language based on the ancient Turkic alphabet. This is evidenced by Arab historians and archaeological finds-bronze mirrors of the IX-X centuries with ancient Turkic inscriptions found in the Irtysh region and Tarbagatai.

In the ancient Turkic era, the population of the great steppe gradually switched from the runic alphabet to the Arabic alphabet. The largest monuments on this chart are “Diwan-lugat-at-Turk” / Dictionary of the Turkic language/ M. Kash Gari, “Kutadgu-Bilik” /Blessed knowledge/ Yu. Balasaguni, etc. on the Arabic chart, a book about Kimakahal-Janah Ibn Hakan al-Kimaki was also compiled. It is interesting that the author of this book was the heir of the Kimak ruler. This book was later used by Arab-Persian travelers, merchants, and scientists traveling to the Great steppe.

At the same time, the Turks, like all other peoples in the ancient and medieval period, had an institution of slavery. It should be noted that the Torah (laws) of the Turks concerning slaves were much softer and more humane than the Roman legislation on slavery.

Slaves were called differently by the ancient Turks. Male slaves were designated by the word “Kul”, and the terms “Kyung” and “Karabash”were used for female slaves. In particular, the Orkhon inscriptions contain only the word “Kyung”, and both terms are used in old Uygur documents (7).


Information about the life of Mukan-Kagan has been preserved extremely little, and the idea of the scale of this person’s activity has not been covered in wide circles for a long time. Therefore, the memory has not been preserved in the national consciousness. However, with the acquisition of independence and the resulting interest in history, they will certainly lead to a nationwide rethinking of the activities of the Mukan Kagan.

List of used literatures:


2.Kyzlasov I. L. Varieties of ancient Turkic runic orthography / / Acta Orientalia. T. L. Budapest, 1997.

3.Torlanbayeva K. U. Institute of Kagan power in the Second East Turkic Khaganate (682-744) \ Diss. on the job. Uch. St. K. I. n. – Almaty, 2003. – 78 p.

4.Zhumaganbetov T. S. Problems of formation and development of the ancient Turkic system of statehood and law of the 6th-12th centuries-Almaty, 2003. — 348 p.

5.Tukesheva N. M. Evolution of ideas about the Supreme power in the societies of the Turkic period (VI-XII centuries). on the job. academic degree of Ph. D.-Almaty, 2007. – 32 p.

6.Kushkumbaev A. K. “Key principles of the Mongolian military strategy of the XIII-XIV centuries” / / Military Affairs Of ulus Juchi and his heirs: Collection of scientific articles / Rev. edited by A. K. kushkumbaev. Astana: Folio, 2012. Pp. 38-71. (376 p.)

7. Sadri MaksWu-Di Arsal. Turkic history and law. Kazan, 2002.

Author: Uzhkenov Ye.М., candidate of historical science