Bilge-Kaǧan (proper name from Chinese sources – Mogilyan) (684–734) third Khagan of the Eastern (Second) Turkic Khaganate. The son of its founder, El-teris (Halteres)-Kagan. In the reign of his uncle, Kapagan-Kaǧan, a participant in a number of wars, shad (ruler) over the tardush subordinates of the Khaganate (698). After the death of Kapagan-Kaǧan, his sons were killed by his brother Bilge-Kaǧan and Kyul-Tegin, who declared the eldest of the Bilge-Kaǧan brothers «by law» as Kagan (716). Bilge-Kaǧan with Kyul-Tegin and adviser Tonyukuk managed to restore the power of the Khaganate, subdue the Uighurs, khidans, Karluks, and others, repel the onslaught of China and its allies; in 721, peace was concluded with China. A policy of appeasement was applied to the vanquished. In 734 the city of Bilge-Khagan was poisoned by his retainers.


Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate from 716 to 734. Under the rule of Bilge Khan, Kyul-Tegin, and Tonyukuk, the Khaganate flourished, and the Turks were able to establish a long-awaited peace with the Tang Empire.

According to the epitaphs, he was born in 683. Bogu was the eldest son of Elteris Kagan, his brother Kyul-Tegin was the greatest hero of the Khaganate, who won many battles and controlled his older brother.

In 700, he participated in a campaign against the Tanguts, the Tanguts were defeated, and the Turks returned with trophies and prisoners. In 701, he participated in a successful campaign against the peoples called “Alty Chub sogdak” by the Turks. Historians have not formed a common opinion about what kind of people they were, there are suggestions that they are referring to the «Alty Chub»: six Chui tribes (Chuyue, chumi, chumugun, chugan of two genera, shato). And the campaign in «sogdak», on Sogdy should be considered an exaggeration, although the troops of the Western Khaganate fought in Sogdiana with the Arab sultans.

In 703, he participated in a campaign against the Basmals, whose ruler was from the Ashin family, but did not send tribute to the Kagan. The Turks returned with their loot. In 705, he defeated 80,000 troops Chach-Sengun of the Tang Empire, probably part of the Tang-Turkic war of 699-710. In 709, relations with the Kyrgyz and chiks (a small people in the Yenisei valley) became strained). They were defeated at the battle of Orpen. In all military actions the brothers were able to secure the glory of successful soldiers and generals.

Unfortunately at the beginning of 710 the Turks were surrounded:

The Kagan of tabgach was our enemy. Kagan of the ten arrows (Western Turks, in this case the Turgesh Khan of Soga. – L.G.) was our enemy. But most of all our enemy was the strong Kyrgyz Kagan. These three kagans, having judged, said: «let us go to The Altun mob».

So they judged and said: «we will go on a campaign to the East against the Turkic Kagan. If we don’t go for it, whatever it is, it will defeat us: Kagan is a hero, and his adviser is a wise man, and he may be our killer. The three of us will unite, go on a campaign, and destroy it».

«The Turgesh Khagan said this: «My people will be there», he said, and the Turkic people are in turmoil, and their Oguzes», – he said, – are scattered» [1].

In 710 Bilge Kagan again made a campaign against the Kyrgyz. The Turks went through the snow «as high as a spear» to the «rabble» (taiga) of koglemansk, they attacked the sleeping Kyrgyz and destroyed them. The next battle took place in the Sunga forest, the Kyrgyz Khan was killed and the Kyrgyz submitted. Since 710, the Khaganate began to be shaken by revolts and Bogya (Bilge-Kaǧan) participated in many campaigns, although the inscriptions represented Kyul-Tegin as a real hero.

In the same year (710), the Turks went on a campaign against the Turgesh, the Turks passed through the Altun forest (Alitain-Nuru) and crossed the Irtysh river. The Turks broke the Turgesh while they were sleeping. At the Bolchu (Urungu) river, the Turks were attacked from all sides by the Turgesh Khan. In the battle, the Turgesh Khan, his Yabgu and Shad died, and the Turgesh submitted.

In 713, the Turks attacked beshbalyk (Tang fortress in Dzungaria), the Turks fought six battles and spared the city. Most likely, this was an exaggeration and the Turks, at best, avoided complete defeat.

In 715-early 716, he participated in the battle with the Karluks at mount Tamag. At mount Togu, a battle with the tokuz-Oguz took place near the Tola river. The next battle took place at Antargu, and the Turks won. In the battle of Chush mountain, the Turks were surrounded and close to defeat, but Kyul-Tegin drove back the enemies, most likely the Uighurs of tongra-tunlo. The next battle took place at Ashanti of Cadasa, where Turks defeated them.

After spending the winter in the fortress of Maga Kurgan, the Turks lost many horses. In the spring of that year, the Turks moved against the Uch-Oguz (Krluk). The Turks divided the army, leaving half to guard the Horde. The Karluks also split up and attacked the army and the camp. There were fewer Turks, and they had to fight off the Karluks [1].

When Kapagan Kagan died (716), Kül-Tegin deposed His son and elevated his elder brother to the throne. Bilge wanted to refuse, but Kyul-Tegin did not want the throne for himself. So Bogu, at the age of 33, became Bilge Khan.

The onga inscription composed in the name of Kapagan calls on the Turks to be loyal to Bilga Khan Bogu, just as they were loyal to his father Elteris. In the inscription at Erdeni Tzu, on behalf of Bilge Khan Bogyu, it is said about the unity of the Turks under the new monarch and the strengthening of power over the subjects of the Turks of the four corners of the world and the fall of the tokuz-Oguz from the Khaganate, who surrendered to the Tang [1].

Mogilyan, the son of the founder of the Second Turkic Khaganate Kutlug-Elteris, was put on the throne in 716, after the death of his uncle Kapagan-Kaǧan (Mochzho-Kagan, about the order of succession to the Kagan power, the so-called specific – ladder system in L. N Gumilev.-Ancient Turks.). The reign of Bilge Kaǧan occurred only thanks to resolute actions of Kyul-Tegin, as the throne, contrary to the Turkic peace keeping “Tore”, were bequeathed Kapagan-Kaǧan his son Run, which, apparently, was supported by the representatives of the second main kind of ancient Turks, Aside (so-called parent phratry in relation to the ruling family Ashina), and Syr tribe (Kipchaks) [2].

On the coronation Kagan attended Kyul Chur from Tradush tribe, followed by Shadapyt (West wing forces), Apa-Tarkhan with people from Tolese (East wing), Taman Tarkan, Tonyukuk Boyle Baga Tarkan, Buyruk (can be the name, and title), Kyul-Tegin was immediately appointed as Duke of East Juki. All of Kapagan’s advisors were executed. Only the seventy-year-old Tonyukuk Apa-Tarhan was appointed adviser to the Kagan, although Bilge doubted him [2]. The Turks were worried, the Khans did not want to listen to the Kagan, and Bilge decided that a war with the Tang would unite the Turks. The wise Tonyukuk dissuaded him by pointing out to him: «But the Tabgach people, who give (to us now) without restriction so much gold, silver, alcohol (or: grain) and silk, (always) had a sweet speech, and jewels (soft” (i.e., luxurious, effeminate;) enticing with sweet speech and luxurious jewels, they so (i.e., very) strongly attracted to themselves far (living) peoples. (The same) having settled closely, then assimilated to themselves there bad wisdom.

Good and wise people, noble heroes, the people of tabgach and their supporters did not (could) move (from the true path). But if (individuals) from the Turks (and were tempted), then entire genera (even) to relatives (to marital relationship) were not rejected. Having allowed yourself to be seduced by their sweet speech and luxurious jewels, you, o Turkic people, perished in great numbers.

Turkic people, when your part said: I want to settle not only on the right (i.e. in the South) in the Chugai mob.

(So), O Turkic people, when you go to that country, you become on the verge of destruction; when you, being in the Otuken country, (only) send caravans (for gifts, i.e. for a tribute), you don’t have grief at all, when you stay in the Otuken mob, you can live building your eternal tribal union, and you, the Turkic people, are full, when you are skinny and hungry (but nonetheless) you do not understand (state) of satiety (i.e. the true causes of satiety) and, once you are full, you do not understand (state) of hunger. Due to the fact that you are such (that is, he is incalculable, short-sighted). ”

This interpretation of the events of the death of the Turkic Khaganate is rightly interpreted as a Manifesto of cultural and political independence. Tonyukuk also dissuaded Kagan from building Chinese temples and a wall in the Horde headquarters. The adviser’s speech is very remarkable: «The Turkic population cannot be compared with the hundredth part of the population in China, and that it can resist this state is due to the fact that the Turks, following the grass and water, do not have a permanent residence and practice only in military Affairs.

When they are strong, they go forward to gain, when they are weak, they evade and hide.

The troops of the house of Tang are numerous, but there is no place to use them

Moreover, the teachings of the Buddha and Lao Tzu make people humane and weak, not warlike and strong».

At the same time, the entire foreign policy of the Khaganate was in the hands of Kyul-Tegin. It seems that the new Kagan quickly escalated relations with the Toguz-Oguz (ancient Uighurs), some of whom joined the Tang, and some were defeated in the battle off the coast of Selenga [3].

In 717, the Togyz-Oguz nomads were defeated, prisoners were taken, and the Oguz continued to cross over to the Tang and move to Ordos. Another campaign was launched against Tatab in Katerin forest (Khingan). To the West, to Dzungaria, was sent tudun Jamtara, who defeated the Karluks, and killed their elteber.

Around this time, the Turks defeated the Tang army, first the cavalry (17,000 according to the Orkhon inscription), then the infantry. This may refer to the battle of Liangzhou in the 720-721 war.

The Kagan decided to make peace with the Tang, but Xuanzong declared war on the Turks. A 300,000-strong army of Chinese and barbarian allies was assembled, and Wang Zun was appointed General. In 720, the army was assembled at the Gilo river and the allies of kidani, tataba, and basmyli went to the Kagan’s headquarters. Tonyukuk calmed the Kagan and prepared a plan of war.

Basmala first came to bet, but no one found. Basmala scared Turkic ambush and retreated to the strengthening of Beitin. But Batin was already occupied by the Turks, who just drove the basmils in a trap. The Chinese army of Yuan Cheng was defeated, it was very cold, and the Chinese did not take gloves, and the archers froze their fingers. Soon the kidani were defeated, and a year later the tatabs also were defeated, in 722. The Turks showed considerable cruelty by destroying even women, which the Turks usually did not do, even with their worst enemies.

In 721, a favorable peace was concluded for the Turks. The Kagan sent embassies and asked for marriage, but the Emperor did not respond. Pei Guantin, during the sacrifice ceremony on Taishan, reminded the Emperor that the Turks are a threat to China in power, while Bilge Kagan rules the Khaganate,  and Kyul-tegin-a great warrior, Tonyukuk-an adviser who, the older, the wiser help to him. It was decided to invite the Turkic Khans to the Imperial guard. Ambassador yuan Zhen received an audience with the Kagan, who released Ashide (one of the closest Turks in the service of the Tang Empire, who had defected to the Kapagan Kagan) to serve with the Emperor, who rewarded and released the Turk. Thus, at the choice of the Kagan, a Turkic nobleman went to China every year to participate in ceremonies. (The Chinese Emperor organized a parade which was attended by representatives of pacifying the barbarians).

The Tibetans suggested that the Kagan sign a border Treaty in 727, but the Kagan handed it over to the Emperor, demonstrating his loyalty to the Tang (the Tufan Tibetans were enemies of the Tang). In Shofane opened exchange market: Turkic horses were exchanged for silk. Several hundred thousand rolls of silk were given by Xuan-Zong to the Turks every year [4].

In 731, Kül-Tegin died. Zhang Quyi and Lu Xiang arrived with a message of condolence. The Emperor ordered to build a temple to Kyul-Tegin, to carve a statue, plates with records of his numerous victories.

As early as 730, the Tang had strained relations with the khidans and tatabs. The Khan of the Khitan Kitovani, joined the Turks. In 732, the Chinese army defeated the Khidan conquered Tatab and drove Katugan. In 733, Bogu gave Katugan an army, and he fought at Tungker mountain with 40,000 troops of Chinese and tatabs, the tatabs fled, and the Chinese were defeated. 30,000 Chinese died.

At an unknown time in his reign, Bilge-Kaǧan married his daughter to a Turgesh Kagan, probably Suluk, and married his son to the daughter of a Turgesh Kagan.

Soon the Uighurs cut the caravan route. It was clear that the combined forces of the nomads would be very difficult to cope with. The Turkic nobleman Mei Lucho interestingly, the former Ambassador to China, poisoned the Kagan, who however managed to order the execution of Meilucho along with his family. So in 734, in the ninth month (of the Turkic calendar), on the 26th, Bilge Khan died. From the Emperor came the official condolences and craftsmen to build the temple and cutting out labels (master Lee Junum). The poisoner and his entire family were executed by order of the dying Kagan. Yollyg-Tegin Yizhan Khan, son of Bilge, became Khan. Kagan’s funeral was held on the 27th of the 5th month (summer, probably July) in the year of the Pig (735). Yollyg-Tegin Ijani Khan disposed of at the funeral. Mention is made of «Li sun tai-sengong» and 500 ambassadors who brought incense, sandalwood candles, silver and gold for the funeral. Saddened Turks cut their hair, ears, and cheeks. Horses, dogs, black Sables, and blue squirrels were sacrificed.

With the help of Chinese carvers, Yollig-Tegin Yizhan Khan composed the famous Orkhon inscription in which he glorified Bilge Khan and the Turkic monarchy. According to the inscription of Yollyg-Tegin made it in a month and 4 days. The stele was placed in the month «when the deer runs in the mountains», that is, around Augus [5].

Bilge-Kaǧan and Kyul-Tegin strengthened the state and concluded important peace treaties with their neighbors. The adviser of Kyul-Tegin, the military commander Tonyukok in his «eternal» stone writings praised the military prowess of the Turks, the exploits of Bilge-Kaǧan and Kyul-Tegin. After the death of Bilge-Kaǧan in 741, the collapse of the Khaganate began. In 744, the Uyghur Khaganate was formed (744-840). The system of government was Patriarchal and feudal. The Supreme power was inherited from one member of the Kagan dynasty to another. The nobility of the Kagan family bore the titles Yabgu, Shad, and Elteber. And trials performed Buruk and Tarkhan. The main support of the Kagan on the ground were the beks. Simple community-based cattle breeders were called Kara Budun-Chern. Duty «blood debt» – mandatory military service. The conquered tribes paid tribute with food and furs. The subordinate, vassal settled population of Zhetysu, conquered by the Turks, was called tats. There were slaves from among prisoners of war. The main type of economy was cattle breeding. In the South of Kazakhstan, the cities of Ispijab, Taraz, Talkhir, and Almalyk developed rapidly. A special role in the flourishing of cities was played by the Sogdians, an ancient East Iranian nation that inhabited Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Relations with Iran and Byzantium contributed to the growth of cities. In Zhetysu along the great silk road, the Turks were involved in international trade. Chinese traveler, monk Xuan Jian testifies that at the beginning of the VII century in the Kagan headquarters, representatives of the nobility wore clothes made of silk [6].


In addition to military events, the reign of Bilge Kaǧan was marked by the creation of a magnificent monument of the ancient Turkic era. The interpretation of this monument opened up the ancient Turkic runic to the world, and it is very difficult to overestimate the significance of this monument in the study of the statehood, world order and culture of the ancient Turks.

The main achievements of Bilge-Kaǧan should be recognized as the restoration and strengthening of the state, military victories, as well as the publication of its own Manifesto, which embodied the political program of the great three Turks: the political ruler and chief diplomat of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate Bilge Kaǧan, the chief commander of Kyul-Tegin and the chief ideologue of Tonyukuk.

The basis of the ideology of the Turks was the rejection of Chinese culture and the Declaration of superiority of their own, actually steppe. The Chinese inscription notes the presence of an ideological trend among the Turks, which could be called militant passeism. To maintain its dignity, it offers a very strained explanation of the rejection of Chinese culture: «His [Kyul-Tegin] deference to parents, friendliness to all became famous in remote countries, his greatness and virtue made him afraid to change morals». This polite, though rather sour, explanation is important only because it confirms the fact of a conscious repulsion from someone else’s culture, which is opposed to their own antiquity [6].

This point is extremely important: it is not only the struggle of States, but the struggle of cultures, the struggle of two worldviews and attitudes. The great steppe manifesto declared its right not to be China, but only to be itself. Such a struggle has been waged since the time of the Hun leader – Mode Shanyu, but here it is formulated and recorded in the document. In order not to succumb to the charm of China, super-powers were needed, and they were made by the blue Turks: Kutlug, Bilge Kaǧan, Tonyukuk, Kyul-Tegin and Yollig-Tegin.

But if the first principle could be popular among the nomads who were subject to the “el” of the blue Turks, even though it hit the pocket, depriving the Chinese of handouts, the second principle was completely unacceptable and even offensive. The Turkic state, monolithic within itself, was supposed by its founders to dominate other tribes. Tonyukuk notes as his merit that he «acquired» and «exalted the Turkic people ». The «order» established by the Turkic Khan was that «our slaves became slaveholders, and our female slaves became slaveholders». Bilge Khan stated: «Tufan (the Tibetan Kingdom) is descended from dogs, and Khitan and Khi are my slaves». The Turgesh Khan was considered a vassal by the Turks, and at the feast in Chang’an, the Turkic Ambassador refused to sit below the Turgesh Khan. The arrogance of the Turks stemmed from the consciousness of their mission – the organization of the steppe and the construction of an original culture, but it was associated with the exploitation and even expropriation of subjects, and this forced the latter to seek salvation in Alliance with the Empire, which predetermined the death of the Khaganate [1].

Nevertheless, the rule of Bilge Kaǧan was not easy at the beginning, but the Great three Turks coped with their task. So, according to the inscription, Bilge Kaǧan came at a difficult time for the state:

«I did not sit down (on the Kingdom) over the rich people (cattle?),

I sat down (in the Kingdom) over a people who had no food inside,

and on the outside of the garment, (above the people) wretched and low.

We had a conversation (about business) with my younger brother, Kuhl-Tegin,

and, that the name and glory of the people won by our father and uncle may not be lost».

In principle, the Declaration of self-importance is typical for all medieval rulers, but only thanks to this inscription becomes known own vision of the Turks on the events of that era.

This is followed by a list of their own actions, where other «officials» are mentioned along with the Kyul-Tegin. This point is happy and interesting because there is a fairly clear hierarchy:

«For the sake of the Turkic people, I did not sleep at night and did not sit (idle) during the day.

With my brother Kül-Tegin and two shads, I acquired (i.e., made conquests) to the point of exhaustion (letters. Weak-dying). Having gained so much (i.e., having conquered), I did not make the Nations that joined us (i.e., I tried to get along with them peacefully) with fire and water, I did… across the country

The wandering people, weakened and dying, pesh and nag, came (to us) back. To raise (my) people, (I undertook) with large troops twelve (campaigns) to the left (i.e., to the North) against the Oguz people, forward (i.e., to the East) against the kytai and tataba people, to the right (i.e., to the South) against the tabgachs… make war.

In total, we went on a hike twenty-five times, gave thirteen

battles, took away tribal unions from those who had tribal unions and took away

kagans who had (at the head of their own) kagans who had knees

forced to kneel, those who had heads forced to bow

(heads). The Turgesh Khagan was our own Turk, (from) our own

people. Since he did not understand (his good)

And he was guilty before us, then (himself) Kagan died (i.e. was killed), his

the “clerks” and rulers were also killed, the people of the ” ten arrows”

was subjected to harassment. Saying: let there be no masterless country

(letters. Land and water), which belonged to our ancestors, we, having arranged

a small (or Asian) people…».

The analysis of the historical geography and ethnic composition of the Second East Turkic Khaganate is reflected in many special works, but we are interested in the main idea, namely, the previous idea of the concentration of power in the hands of Kyul-Tegin and the puppet role of Bilge Kaǧan is largely erroneous. After the death of Tonyukuk and Kyul-Tegin, Bilge-Kaǧan independently manages the state and passes a fairly stable Empire into the hands of the heir.


The Bilge-Kaǧan monument is a large stone complex, a monument of the Turkic runic script of the VIII century. Part of the cultural landscape of the Orkhon river valley.

The monument itself has been studied many times by many scientists, but the merit of a detailed description belongs to the Czech archaeologist Yislu, who examined the burial during a joint Czech-Mongolian expedition in 1958.

The entire structure, measuring 80×40 meters, stretches from East to West. It is surrounded by a moat that breaks in front of the gate, and a wall of clay that has been tiled, plastered, and whitewashed. At the gate – two statues of rams made of marble. Behind them, a paved road and a rainwater pond with a ceramic pipe that drained away excess moisture. Behind it, on the back of a marble turtle (the Chinese symbol of eternity), the stele itself was fixed with the inscription. Nearby was a temple with an altar and a marble statue of Kyul-Tegin and his wife.

The head of the statue was found. It is made quite realistically: Mongoloid features-cheekbones, Mongolian eyelid, low straight nose and oblique eye section leave no room for doubt about the race of the Ashin family [1].

A chain of “balbals” or stone people stretches to the monument for as much as 3 km from the Tsaydam salt lakes. Until our time, 169 balbals survived, but apparently there were more of them. Some sculptures are given a rough likeness of a man, hands are marked, and a belt is outlined.

In addition, in the public mind, Bilge-Kaǧan is still associated with those individuals who made a significant contribution to history. Thus, the scientist, political scientist from Turkey Kurshad Zorlu called Nursultan Nazarbayev Bilge-Kaǧan of the Turkic world: «Dear President, over the years of independence, Kazakhstan has achieved a good result thanks to your stable policy. Kazakh culture began to be known all over the world. You said: «Our young people should know their great history, starting from the Saks and Huns. These words were warmly received by the Turkish youth and spread on social networks. Last year, according to the results of a social survey, you became the most recognizable leader in Turkey. We consider you the Bilge-Kaǧan of the Turkic world», – Kurshad Zorlu said at the international scientific and practical conference «30 years of leadership» in Almaty.

In architecture, the memory of the period of Bilge-Kaǧan’s rule is preserved in the form of a memorial complex (the largest of the Turkic ones), which is located in the Khusho-Tsaidam tract (Orkhon river valley, Mongolia). It was built in 735 with the participation of the Chinese Embassy and destroyed around 745. The brick-paved area, surrounded by a rampart and a moat (95×60 m), is oriented by the entrance to the East, in the same direction a number of balbals stretches for 3.2 km. Inside, along the longitudinal axis, there were paired stone sculptures of rams and dignitaries, a pavilion with a stele, a square brick temple covered with tiles with marble sculptures of sitting Bilge-Kaǧan and his wife, and a stone cubic altar. There was also found a treasure of 2000 precious items: the crown of Bilge-Kaǧan, jewelry, miniature dishes, and others [2].

At the beginning of the XXI century, the stele dedicated to Bilga Kaǧan was moved to the «Orkhon» Museum, located near the monument, for preservation; a concrete copy was installed on the site of its original location. The conservation carried out within the framework of the joint project of Mongolia and Turkey «Preservation, restoration and research of some ancient Turkic monuments in Mongolia» was unsuccessful: the marble monuments lost the color that had been preserved for 1300 years.

At the beginning of the eighth century, the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate emerged. At least 100 years passed between the First and the Second. Yet the new Khaganate perfectly remembered the origins of the centuries-old history of the Turks, its first rulers. The inscription to Kyul-Tegin, Prince of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate, who died in 732, lists the names of both founders: «My ancestors Bum-Kagan and Istemi-Kagan sat Above the sons of men. North (on the Kingdom) they supported and arranged the tribal Union and the establishment of the Turkic people». But that’s not what Bilge-Kaǧan is interested in. He is interested in the reasons for the collapse of the First Turkic Khaganate. And Bilge-Kaǧan divides rulers into wise and foolish, cowardly: «We sat (the Kingdom), I suppose, unreasonable Kagan, presumably, sat down (in the Kingdom) cowardly Kagan». It is not only about the rulers, but also their advisers: «and their «clerks» were also unreasonable, were cowardly».

In principle, we can assume that Bilge-Kagan in the memorial stele to his brother Kyul-Tegin makes not only, as we would say now, an analysis of the internal political situation, but also of the external causes of the collapse of the First East Turkic Khaganate:

«Because of the instigation and deception of those who deceive the people of tabgach and because of those who deceive them,

(and) because they (Tabgachi) quarreled the younger brothers with the older ones and armed the people and rulers against each other,

– the Turkic people upset their (up to that time) existing tribal Alliance and brought death to the Kagan who reigned over them (up to that time) ».

The Tabgachs referred to the Chinese, or rather the Turks, who were at the head of the Chinese Empire [2].

The wisdom of the rulers, the wisdom of their advisors, and the understanding between the rulers and the people – that’s what ensures success, concludes Bilge-Kaǧan. He saw these qualities in the founders of the First Turkic Khaganate:

«They were wise Kagans, they were courageous Kagans, and their «command» were wise, were courageous, and their rulers and people were direct.

That is why they kept the tribal Union (in their power) for so long and, holding it (in their power), created a court of law».

It turns out that we have before us not just the words of the memorial service, but detailed ideas about how the state should be created and managed. Perhaps there is an excessive emphasis on personal qualities, on the subjective factor. But we must take into account that the memorial stele was intended for the people, for the mass reader. And it wasn’t just a lecture. This principle was the basis of the sovereign rule of Bilge-Kagan himself. The power of the state in it was combined with the power of the military and the knowledge of the adviser. Military and other power was concentrated in his hands by his brother. Tonyukuk took over knowledge, relations with the masses, and the sphere of politics and morality.

The state was embodied by Bilge-Kagan.

A list of literature and sources:

1. Gumilev L.N. Drevnie tjurki. Serija: Istoricheskaja biblioteka, Izdatel’stvo: AST, 2010. – S. 560

2. Kljashtornyj S.G., Savinov D.G. Stepnye imperii drevnej Evrazii. Serija: Istoricheskie issledovanija Sankt-Peterburg Filologicheskij faKyul’tet SPbGU 2005. – S. 346.

3. Istorija Kazahstana s drevnejshih vremen do nashih dnej v pjati tomah. Almaty. Atamura, 2010. Tom 1. – S. 322.

4. Nasledniki kaganata // Rezhim dostupa:

5. Tishin V.V. Istoriografija social’noj istorii Tjurkskogo kaganata VI-VIII vv. Dissertacija na soiskanie stepeni kandidata istoricheskih nauk: Moskva, 2015. – S. 554.

6. Istorija Tjurkskogo kaganata // Rezhim dostupa:

Author: UzhkenovYe.М., candidate of historical science