Satuh Bogra khan – Gazy (895-956) – founder of the Karahanid state, public figure, the military chief, diplomat, one of the first rulers of Turks who have adopted the Islamic religion and extended Islamic culture among the Turkic people.


The founder of the Karahanid state, Sultan Satuh Bograkhan – Gazy, was born in about 895 in the ancient city of Balasagun. He was the heir of the great Khan of the Karluks, a supporter of the Buddha religion – Bilge Kul Kadyrhan, he was at the origin of Islamization of the population, started the education (i.e. Islamization) of the Turks, one of the first Turkic rulers to adopt the Islamic religion, the first Muslim-Turkic ruler to be awarded the Muslim name “Abdikarim” (Abdulkarim, Abd al’ Karim).

As is known, historical facts about the birth and death of a historical figure differ – (Illus.). Sultan Satuh Bogra khan was the second son of Bazyr Arslan Khan, the supreme Khan of the Karakhan’s dynasty. Due to the early death of his father Bazyr Arslan-Khan, his mother marries her husband’s native brother Ogulshak by “amengerlic” way. When Ogulshak moves to Kashgar, she and her son follow him, and therefore Satuk lived and was raised at the court of his uncle. At that time Kashgar was the most important trading point on the Great Silk Road, from where caravans went to different countries, which included Sufi preachers, religious scientists along with merchants. Therefore, according to some researchers, through communication with them, Satuk gradually leaned towards their faith. However, at the same time being afraid of the anger of his uncle, who did not adhere to the Muslim religion, he practiced Islam secretly.

During Ogulshak ‘s reign, Kashgar was the capital, and when the ruler of the Samanid dynasty Nasser died in 893, and his younger brother Smail takes power into his own hands by a palace coup, Shahzada Nasser fleeing fear for his life began to live in the Horde under the protection of Ogulshak in Kashgar. As he had a good relationship with Ogulshak, he was entrusted with the rule of the city of Artush. He also agreed to build a mosque for traders from Samani. Thus, Zhamal Karshi (1230-1315) referring to the book “History of Kashgar” by the historian Abdul Dzhappar, the contemporary of an Karakhanid’s era, mentions in own book “Surah Lugatige Ilaue” that under the influence of the fugitive Nasser bin Mansur, Satuh Bogra khan since early years, accepts Islam being one of the first, also after it Karakhanids massively accept Islam, where earlier Buddha and Mani’s religion reigned. There is also some information about this in the Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia [1, p. 25].

Here it is necessary to pay attention to some issues faced by our scientists-historians and Turkologists. For example, there are some contradictions related to the ancient meanings of the names Bogra Khan and Karakhan, and also concerning the current meanings of these words used in modern scientific research. Thus, in particular, in M. Kashgari ‘s “Dictionary of the Turkic Language,” as well as in the Chinese books “Zhinnama,” these names are mentioned as “Hakania,” “Hakan Dynasty”, “Mulikhan Dynasty”, “Ilikhan Dynasty”, “Aprasiab Dynasty”, at the same time, in the 19th century, the Russian scholar V.V. Gregory first wrote them as “The Karahanid Dynasty”. This was based on the fact that the name of the rulers in the record is often referred to as “Karahan.” And the meaning of the word “black” used by ancient Turks, denoted “the highest, supreme.” In the Kazakh language words “қара жер, қара аспан”, “қара тау” remained in the same sense as ancient words which kept the initial value.

In the era we considered, the dynasties were ruled divided into two territories, so the Khan that ruled the main part of Kaganat meant Supreme “Hakan”, who lived in Balasagun, ruled the whole country with the title “Lion.” The ruler of the small territory of Kaganat was called “Bogra-bura” and was originally from Talas. After the conquest of Talas by Samanids, he went to Kashgar and began to rule with the same name khan Bura-Bogra as well. When “Satuh Bogra khan” became the supreme Kagan, he was still known in kaganat as “Bogra khan-Gazy-Abdikerim”.

A book titled “A Brief History of Islamic Kingdoms in Xinjiang” states that the time of Satuh Bogra Khan’s conversion to Islam was long before his ascension to the throne, more precisely in 915. However, we should note that encyclopedias and multi-volumes of the history of Kazakhstan were not written quite correctly. For example, the 10th volume of the Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia states that “Satuh Bograhan Abdulkarim (Abl el-Karim) (915-955) – was the son of the ruler of the Karakhan state Aryslan Khan Bazyr” [2, P. 16-17]. The same text, unchanged, is repeated in volume 3 of the Kazakh Encyclopedia [3]. The mistake here is that the year of the accession to the throne of Bogra Khan, 915 was recorded as his birthday. In the first volume of “History of Kazakhstan,” released by the “Atamura” publishing house in 1996, Ogulshak ‘s cousin Satuh Bogra Khan is considered the founder of Karakhanid dynasty (915-955). Taking advantage of Samanid support and adopting Islam, Satuh Bogra Khan opposed Khan Ogulshak and defeated him, and conquered the cities of Taraz and Kashgar; In 942, he swept the ruler of Balasagun and declared himself the supreme Kagan. It is written that “in fact, the history of the Karakhan state begins from this time” [4].

Comparing data in Chinese and Uighur, official history, art literature, and early written essays and religious historiography, it can be established that he was “buried” in the Meshhed mountains of Artush near Kashgar, and died in Kashgar in 955-956, and reigned for about 40 years. The grand dome (mausoleum) was built in honor of “Satuh Bogra Khan – Gazy” [2] and was imprinted on the pages of history. The historical novel of the writer, public figure from east Turkistan Saipidin Aziz called “Satuh Bogra-khan” [5], reveals the most difficult and glorious events of this era, based on historical and artistic realities, describing events from childhood till the death of a great personality.

Over the next 40 years, he was able to fight back against both internal and external enemies, turning his Khanate into a powerful Karahanid state, preaching Islam not only among his proxies in the Horde but also adhering to the Islamic religion in the Khanate and urging everyone to adopt the Islamic religion. Soon, in Balasagun, in the first capital of Karakhans, declared war against the Supreme Buddhist Khan AryslanKhan, wins over him and conquers the city of Balasagun. This occurred in about 942-943. The main task of Satuh Bogra Khan was the liberation of the ancient homeland of the Turkic indigenous peoples, namely Maveranna’hr and Zhetysu.

In the period from 943 to 944, in the context of the struggle against internal and external attacks, Sultan Satuh Bogra-Khan took measures to strengthen and develop the military-political, economic and educational spheres of his Khanate. He increases the military power of the state, then, in 943, having led a hundred thousand Muslim armies, crosses the border of Kashgar and goes on a campaign to siege the cities that were conquered by the Samanids. During the year he fights continuously, eventually frees such large fortress-cities as Talas, Osh, Uzgen, Pergan, Kokand, Namangan, Samarhan, Shash from Samanids and returns with triumph to Kashgar. He was given the highest status of “Powerful Satuh Bogra Khan – Gazy.”

Many historians and chroniclers wrote about him, trying to assess the 40-year rule of Satuh Bogra Khan. He was not only an ordinary Khan of Karahanids but, a social reformer of that era, a man-innovator who declared slavery illegal. He builds grand mosques, madrasas, to bring the religion of Islam and Islamic civilization to the ordinary people, and widely spread Arab Islamic culture. He was an educator, a brave warrior, a patriot, a supporter of everything new.

Despite the lack of written sources about the innovative and creative ideas of Satuh Bogra Khan, we can refer to the historians of the Horde and subsequent entries. In the book of history of Kashgarian Abdullah Dzhappar, who lived in the 11th century, it is said that a lot is written about Karahanids, unfortunately, in the future, they are lost, only a few words are mentioned about them in the book “Introduction in Surah Lugat” by Jamal Karshi, where it is said that… ” In 893-year of the new era, the younger khan Ogulshak, who ruled the city of Talas, failed to repel Samanid attacks, so leaving Talas, moved to Kashgar. Kashgar has since become the political, economic, cultural and religious center of Karahanids. “

[This drawing was taken from S. Aziz ‘s book “SatukBogra Khan.” 1982 – Historical Novel. – 1007 page]

Since the reign of the Karahanids in 915, he has boldly pursued an entirely new policy in the administration of the state. In particular, in the Horde, his faithful, trusted people concentrated on big and small affairs, always solving issues collegially. Under his leadership, he exercised power within the framework of the so-called five words “competence, unity, protection, prosperity, friendliness to the near and hostility to the enemy.” Thus, to preserve the territorial integrity of his country ‘s Khanate, he not only repelled Samanid attacks but also attacked them with retaliatory attacks and drove them from his territory. He built mosques, a large number of madrasas in the country, and made efforts to educate the population and develop Islamic civilization.

Studying and analyzing data and records of researchers of life and activity Satuh Bogra khan, it is possible to mark out the following features: Satuh triumphally restored the traditional tripartite system of the government relations. This “tertiary board” issued the special decree and safely realized them. For example, liberalization, equality, abundance, and protection became the basis of slogans in the khanate, and Islam becomes the state religion, slavery cancels, once a year large issues of the khanate are discussed in the constituent assembly “quryltai”. There were developed laws aimed to reduce taxes and to punish bribe-takers and tyrants. Thanks to the implementation of such wise policy and its further realization, Satuh Bogra Khan made Karakhanid state the most prospering and known, having left the special mark in the history.

In 40 years, since the reign of Satuh Bogra-khan, Karakhanid khanate got civilized development which was never before in the history of the Turkic people. In particular, special attention was paid to education, construction of mosques and madrasah, also Islamic education. In the first day of the reign of the Khan, he put a cornerstone of the mosque-madrasah “Haythe Gakh” in Kashgar and turned it into the center of Islamic-Turkic culture [a photo of the Great Mosque, “Ұйғырлардың қысқаша тарихы” (Short history of Uighurs) publishing house “Шинжан халық” (Xinjiang people). Urumchi.]

Architectural constructions of times of board Karakhanids as mausoleum Aisha-bibi and Babadzha–Khatun near Taraz, the Snow tower (in Kyrgyzstan) reached till our days in good safety. Turk Zhusup Balasaguni wrote the epic work “Kutadgu Bilik” or “Kutty bilik” (Qutag’u biligi), devoted to Karakhanid’s kagans Suleyman, Arslan, and Kara-kagan. With the adoption of Islam, Turkic-speaking tribes passed to the Arab alphabet, developed Arabic-language literature, architecture, and construction. In the cities, the craft and trade developed.

             Living in the centers of a medieval civilization of mankind, in Balasagun and Isfidzhab (Sayram), taking part in the government of the people and pursuing science, famous Mahmoud Kashgari (Mekhdiud ibn al-Hussein ibn Muhammad) wrote the great work “Dictionary of Turkic Language” (Diyuani Lugat-it tyurok).

The Karakhanid khanate founded by Satuh Bograkhan left a historical scene approximately in 1212, without having sustained an impact of internal and external enemies. There is a set of stories, research works, and legends of life Satuh Bogra Khan-Abdikerim and his successors who became a part of history of all Turkic people in a new Turk-Islamic civilization. Among them, a specific place is held by work “Tazkire and Bogra khan – the chronicle by the sultan Satuh of Drill-Khan-Gazy [6], devoted to great Kagan’s life and Turkic-Islamic world. The author of the book “Tazkire”, the Kashgar historian Sallakhiat Hagi (Hagi mullah), approximately treats the end of the seventeenth century [7].

The great son of our people, Shokan Ualikhanov, brought this book from the well-known trip to Kashgar, it’s one of the most valuable historical books which he brought home. “Tazkire [8] – Bogra-khan” has great importance in studying the history of Kazakhs, because the historical events and ethnographic data mentioned here are medieval uzuz-kypchaks and also it’s closer to modern Kazakh language and life.

[This illustration was taken from the work of “Tazkira-i Bogra of the khan”. – Almaty: “Toganai”, 2007.]

Serikbai Kosan, who translated “Tazkire-Bogra-Khan” into Kazakh, notes that… ” Every Turkologist who reads the original version of the work will find hundreds of Kazakh words in the texts of the narrative”, he also draws attention to the episode, where Sultan Satuh Bogra-khan, when meeting with his teacher-mentor Abu Nasser Samanim in the steppes, was wearing a headgear made of felt, sitting on a horse with a white forehead.

Although Turkic scholars support this or another idea, the importance of such valuable evidence is obvious”. [9] It should be noted that research papers written at different times, especially by Uighur and Uzbek scientists, mislead the reader, distorting both historical and scientific credibility, without any reference to reliable, proven sources. Who was Bilge Kul Kadyrhan, whether he is from the Karluk tribes or the Uighur ruler Pantegin, seems to have the exact answer in these arguments above.

Meanwhile, based on historical sources [10], [11], [12], [13] it is possible to dwell on the following points. Bilge Kul Kadyrkhan, the founder of the Karakhanid khanate, since 6th century of our era lived in the southern areas Altai-Dzhungar-Zhetysu and Tien-Shan, the historic figure and the native of tribes of the karluk, kipchak, turkeshs inhabiting Issyk-Kul’, Balasagun, Kulan, Talas, Ispidzhab (Sayram), Otyrar, Kashgaria known in the history as the khanate of karluk-karakhans making up Turkic-speaking people.

In the aforementioned studies, it is sufficiently proven that the 15 Uighur tribes led by Pantegin, who lost their native land in 840, weren’t able to reach the aforementioned areas during the battle of Bilge Kul Kadyrhan against the Samanids. So, Uyghurs began to dominate in power in the Karakhanids Khanate in the second half of the 10th century when three from karluk (Tasty, Bult, Chigil) took part in release of the cities of Balasagun-Talas, Sayram-Otyrar from samanid and who actively participated in defeat of army of the empire of Tan in 100 thousand people headed by the general Gau Shiandi in the battle of the well-known Atlakh-Talas (751 g). It is common knowledge that almost 59 of the Khans who ruled during the 170 years in Kashgar were from the Karluk tribe, such as Bilge Kul Kadyrhan, Bazyr Karahan, Ogulshak, Sutuh Abdikerim, Musa Aryslan, and their descendants. Below is a record of these 59 khans, in Arabic and Chinese with translation.

Scheme 1 [14]

[“The Record of the Karahanid Dynasty”] (Based on the work of Vi Liantau: “The History of Karahanids”).

1. Bilge Kul Kadyrkhan. 2. Bazyr. 3. Ogulshak. 4. …. 5. Satuk (Abdikerim). 6… 7. Musa Arslan Khan. 8. Suleyman. 9. Ali Arslan Khan. 10. Asel (Aaron) Bogra khan. 11. Ahmet. 12. Nasser. 13. Mansur. 14. Muhammed. 15. Yusuf. 16. Ahmet. 17. Ali (Ali Tegin). 18. Muhammad. 19. Ibrahim 20. Bilal. 21. Suleyman. 22. Muhammed. 23. Mahmut. 24. Yusuf. 25. Nasser. 26. Дауыт. 27. Kyzyr. 28. Muhammad. 29. Mamed. 30. Asel. 31. Yakhup. 32. Hussein. 33. Ibrahim. 34. Oner. 35. Abdolla. 36. Suleyman. 37. Ahmet. 38. Masnut. 39. Ahmet (Aaron). 40. Aaron (Dzhabrakhil). 41. Ali. 42. Muhammad. 43. Ibrahim. 44. Ibrahim. 45. Assen. 46. Nasser. 47. Ahmet. 48. Mahmut. 49. Imam. 50. Muhammad. 51. Ali. 52. Hussein. 53. Yusuf. 54. Masnut. 55. Imbarkhim. 56. Nasser. 57. Muhammad. 58. Muhammad. 59. Ottoman.

Scheme 2 [17]

[Record of the Khans of the Karahanid dynasty from Chinese historian Wang Jilai ‘s book “Zhongya Shigang” in Chinese is attached.]

I. Bilge Kadyrhan (since 840)

II. Byzyr – Ogulshak

III. …..

IV. (more than 960 years ago)

V. Batash. Moussa. Abdikerim (after 960)

VI. Ali Musa (died 998)

VII. Ahmed (Tuohanghang. (998-1017 / 18) Nasser Ilekhan (died 1012/13)

VIII. Mansour (1015 / 16-1024 / 25) Mohammed (died about 1024/25)

IX Ahmet (1024/25-1026 / 27) (died 1043/44)

H. Yusuf (Kadyrhan) (died 1026 / 27-1032)

Chronicles of Ali Musa Dynasty

1. Mohammed (died 1041 / 42-1052 / 53)

2. Ibrahim (Bilge Tegin) (died 1052 / 53-1068)

3. Nasser (died 1068-1080)

4. Abu Kyzyr (1080-1081?)

5. Ahmet (1081?-1095)

6. Yakup (1089?)

7. Masnut (died 1095-1097)

8. Suleyman (died 1097)

9. Abul Qasim Mahun (died 1097-1099)

10. Aaron

11. Muhammad (died 1102-1130 1132)

12. Ahmet (1129?-1132?)

13. Hassan (1130-1132?)

14. Ibrahim (died 1132)

15. Makhum (died 1132-1141-1162/63)

16. Ibrahim (died 1141-1156)

17. Ali (1156-1160 Death)

18. Abil Mohafar Masood (died 1160-1178)

19. Ibrahim (died 1203/04)

20. Guzmán (died in 1203 / 4-1212)


Satuh Bogra khan-Gazy, after ascension to the throne in Kashgar in 915 as the legitimate successor of his father Bazyr Karahan, strengthening the military and defense power of Khanate while reflecting attacks by supporters of the deposed Ogulshak, began preparations to free the fortress-cities captured by Samanids. In this process, following the policy of “making a deal with relatives as a relative, with enemies as an enemy,” began to strengthen the foundations of the khanate.

In 943, Satuh Bogra Khan, having led a hundred thousand army, is sent to siege the cities that were conquered by the Samanids. Within a year, in bloody battles, his troops, having destroyed the Samanian army, liberate the cities of Talas, Balasagun, Osh, Ozkent, Pergan, Kokand, Namangan, Shash, Samarkand, having brought to hand all once conquered Turkic lands, returned to Kashgar with a victory.

The liberated fortresses and cities were handed over to trusted persons, which led to peaceful life in the territory of Kaganat, and opportunities for the development of education and science opened up.

During the reign of Satuh Khan and his heirs, many educational institutions – madrasas – were erected in the territory of the khanate. Talented young men from the madrasa of Balasagun and Otrar, “Sashiya” Atush and Zharkent, proclaimed Islamic civilization to the whole world, represented by Abu Nasyr Al-Farabi, Mahmoud Kashgari, Yusuf Haz Hajip Balasaguni, Ibn Shin, Yukheki, thanks to his and his successor’s efforts. It can be said that Satuh Bogra Khan – Gazy – Abdikerim is a historical contemporary and witness to the era of strengthening and prosperity of the Karahanid state.

Satuh Bogra Khan ruled the throne with the triumphant domination of novelty, ruled through a “tertiary panel.” The “Tertiary Panel” held a grand congress once a year at which important issues of the Khanate were discussed. His main motto was: based on the principles of unity, freedom, reason, protection, and initially reproaching slavery, work to liberation of slaves. He facilitated taxation, granted free access to domestic and foreign trade, and paid attention to agriculture and livestock. It is also important that by strengthening the defense capacity of the Khanate, he completely liberated the Turkic land occupied by the Samanids, thus being able to decisively destroy the centuries-old influence of the Samanid dynasty. By improving the system of mosques and madrasas, based on Islamic civilization, he developed education and science. Created a solid foundation for a holistic Turkic-Islamic spiritual world calling for a move away from the tribal divide and nation-people solidarity.

Thus, in the history of Turkic peoples becoming a recognized historical personality Sultan Satuh Bogra Khan – Gazy – Abdukarim assigned state status to Islam and Islamic civilization in Central Asia. Satuh Bogra Khan – Gazy ruled the country for 40 years, closer to his death, by about 955-56 bequeathed him to be buried in the area of Meshhead near Artush next to his teacher-mentor Nasir bin Mansur near Kashgar. Thus, the famous Satukh Bogra Khan-Gazy – Abdukarim, the pride of all Turki-Islamic history was rooted in a large mausoleum with a beautiful dome. The Karluk Khanate, founded by his ancestors Bilge Kul Kadyr-Khan and Bazyr-Karahan, was subsequently named as Satuh Bogra-Khan – Gazy. The famous work “Tazkire-i-Bogra-Khan” written about the pride of the Turkic-Islamic world Sallahiat Mullah Haji, also the historical novel S. Aziz “Satuh Bogra Khan” (1982) reveal him as a legendary personality of his era. Besides, in scientific studies translated at different times and countries, there is a lot of information about the Karahanid state and its ruler Satuh Bogra khan-Gazy in the form of numerous sections in encyclopedias and textbooks.

On the question of which of the Turkic tribes the Karakhanid state was formed, there is still disagreement among historian scholars, especially the study of Uighur historians. Based on our research, we share the following view. In volume 1 of the five-volume “History of Kazakhstan” [15] five volumes of Kazakh historiographers say: “In the history of the Karahanids state and the prehistoric history of the Karluk tribes, the Karluk Confederation tribes played an important role… The long and long struggle of the Karluks, Gikils, Yagmovs who inhabited Zhetysu and the surrounding areas against the Samanians, as well as attacks from the East by the Toguz Guz were accompanied by the consolidation of ethnic and political platforms of Turkic tribes in the south and south-east of Kazakhstan. Among them, Karluks played a major role.

In 840, the head of the Karluk tribe, the ruler of Ispijab Bilge Kul Kadyr-khan accepted the title of Kagan and claimed the right to obtain the highest power. In the same year, the Samanids conquered Ispijab. After Bilge Kul-Kadyrhan ‘s death, two of his sons went out to fight for power in Kaganat, Bazyr-Arslan-khan began ruling in Balasagun, and Ogulshak Kadyr-khan in Taraz… Satuh Bogra Khan, Ogulshak ‘s younger brother (915-955) is considered the founder of the Karakhanid dynasty. “It follows that the Bilge Kul Kadyr khan dynasty, the founder of the Karahanid’s khanate, who ruled for 170 years, could not simply seize power from other Turk tribes, so there can be no question of Uighur tribes led by Ban Tekin, which is clearly shown on the next two maps – the map of the Karakhanid dynasty.

(It is provided in the table)

There is no doubt that all the 59 khans mentioned (in Uighur and Chinese) are the rightful heirs of Satuh Bogra khan. As is known from history, the Karluks and Uighurs who inhabited the Mongolian Plateau and the Orhon-Yenisei region in the 6th-7th centuries fought more than once for the supreme power of the Turks. The Karluks then move for Altai and settle in the South West of Tien Shan. When the Turkish Kaganat (692-766) of Karluk-Karakhan Kaganat, which ruled Balasagun and Ispijab, Otrar and Kashgaria, weakened, occupied huge territory in Zhetysu between the two rivers. Based on the historical facts about the historical personalities mentioned above, we believe that the Musulmani-Turkic Kaganate founded by Satukh-Bograkhan was a developed medieval state of ethnic groups formed in the aftermath into the Kazakh people.


The founder of the Karakhanid Khanate Sultan Satukh Bogra Khan was the common pride of all Turkic-speaking peoples living in the territory of the Kaganate. He is devoted to a lot of tazkires and legend-poems. Among the number of unique oriental manuscripts brought by the great Kazakh Oriental scientist Sh. Valihanov from the Kashgar expedition was “Tazkiryai Sultan Satuk Bugra-khan” (“History of Satuk-Bugra-khan”).

Sultan Satuk Bograkhan’s mausoleum is one of the most majestic structures in Kashgaria, built-in 956, which is a center of pilgrimage for many believers. There is a beautiful mosque next to the mausoleum, which is one of the landmark places of worship in Kashgaria. In Kashgar city, the madrasa mosque “Hend-Gah” was known for 10 centuries under the name Satuh Bogra Khan. The historical novel “Satuh Bogra-khan” and “Tazkire Sultan Satuh Bogra Khan” serve the Turkic-Islamic world for four centuries.

Here is what writer, traveler, leader of the expedition – Ismailzhan Iminov writes, “Along the caravan path of Ch. Valihanov to Kashgaria”:… “It is obvious that having visited Kashgar, Chokan could not leave without visiting the village of Artush, which is now united in the city. The traveler (Ch.Valihanov – A.D.) notes: “Astyn Artysh” (Lower Artysh), aka Altyn Artysh (Golden), north-east of Kashgar in 60 versts, is captured by a tomb and mosque built on the grave of Sutuk Bograhan Gazi. ” The mausoleum of Sultan Satuk Bograhan (U. Valihanov – Sutuk Bograhan Ghazi – I.I.) is one of the most significant structures in Kashgaria, built-in 956, is a center of pilgrimage for many believers. Satuk was a kagan of the Karakhanid state, he converted to Islam in 920. Gradually this religion became dominant in the country, and in 960 Islam became the state religion of the Karakhanid kaganate. Near the mausoleum, there is a beautiful mosque, which is one of the most important places of worship in Kashgaria “[17]

In Kashgar city, the madrasa mosque “Hend-Gah” was known for 10 centuries under the name Satuh Bogra Khan. The historical novel “Satuh Bogra-khan” and “Tazkire Sultan Satuh Bogra Khan” serve the Turkic-Islamic world for four centuries.

List of literature and sources:

  1. Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia. 4v. Almaty: Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia main editorial. 1974 – 670 p.
  2. Short history of Islam khanates in Xinjiang. – Urumchi: Xinjiang people neshriyat, 2003. – 516 p.
  3. Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia. T. 10 – 1977. 52 p.
  4. Kazakhstan history. Four volumes. 1v. – Almaty: Atamura, 1996 – 399 p.
  5. Azizi S. Satuk Bogra khan. “Milleter neshriyaty” 1982. Historical novel. 1007 p.
  6. Tazkire – i- Bogra khan. Almaty: Tolagai, 2007.
  7. Asian museum, 1909. – St. Petersburg. (589 dc) p. 544.
  8. Dauletkhan A. “Shygys Tu’rkistan halyqtarynyn’ ult-azattyq da’u’iri adebieti” (East Turkistan nation’s literature in national-liberation era) (1679-1949). – Almaty: “Da’stu’r” (Tradition), 2015. – 383 p.
  9. Tazkire – in Arabic means memoirs, biographies, chronicles. In the pages of the Kazakh press, “Essay” is used as biographical notes. We want to note that “Tazkire” – can be applied in its value, if only used in the direct value.
  10. Li Zhynshyn. Short history of Islam khanates in Xinjiang. – Urumchi: Xinjiang people neshriyat, 2003. – 516 p.
  11. Huatau. “Garbi yurt tarihy heqqyda tetqyqat”. Xinjiang people neshriyat, 2002. – 448 p.
  12. History of Uighur literature. 3v. Neshriyat of milletler. – Beijin. 2006.- 540 p.
  13. Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia. 7v. Almaty: Kazakh Soviet Encyclopedia main editorial. 1975 – 646 p.
  14. Short history of Islam khanates in Xinjiang. – Urumchi: Xinjiang people neshriyat, 2003. – 96-97 p.
  15. Kazakhstan history. . – Almaty: Atamura, 1995 – 545 p.
  16. Uang Zhylay. Zhongya Shigang (History of Central Asia). – Huna’n: Hunan zhiau iui shu banshee, 1986. – 663 p. 
  17. Iminov I. Throught the caravan way of Ch. Valikhanov to Kashgaria. Magazine “Ma’deni mura” (Cultural heritage), №33 May – June 2019.

Аuthor: Alimgazy Dauletkhan, candidate of historical science.