Young scientists projects (2020-2023)

Reconstruction of the Golden Horde settlement of Aktobe Laeti: source studies and historiographical aspects

At the beginning of 2021, the Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology launched a youth grant funding project “Reconstruction of the Golden Horde settlement of AktobeLaeti: Source studies and historiographical aspects”. The study was planned for three years. The work on the project is conducted under the guidance of Candidate of historical science, leading scientific researcher of Institute of history and ethnology – Shotanova G.A. As part of the research group Candidate of Historical Sciences, medievalist Uzhkenov E.M., PhD, sinologist Saikeneva D.K., doctoral students Moryakova M.T., Margulan A.S., also specialists of the Department of Medieval History of Kazakhstan IIE Arepova A.D. and Nurmanova A.K.

The object of research of this project is the Golden Horde settlement of Aktobe, located 18 kilometers from the city of Atyrau and functioning approximately in the XIII-XV centuries.

The aim of the project is to reveal the role and significance of the Golden Horde city of Aktobe Laeti in the history and culture of the Great Steppe by conducting a source and historiographical analysis.

To study the set goal of the project, a group of researchers began a comprehensive study of pre-revolutionary, Soviet and domestic modern researchers. This work is important for compiling a historiographical review, which will later be used to form a bibliographic index. Historiographical analysis will reveal the shortcomings of existing ideas, and can also serve as confirmation of new theories and views. In addition, the research group will use a problem–chronological method that will reveal the level of development of the settlement in a particular time period, and will also contribute to the analysis of patterns of development of settled agricultural culture in the specified region, and will also use the methods of historicism, consistency, and historical comparativistics. An interdisciplinary approach will be chosen in the presentation of the material under study. On the one hand, it contributes to the coverage of the history of Kazakhstan in a certain sequence and interrelation, on the other; it will allow highlighting and revealing a number of topical problems in related scientific fields.

The results obtained and the novelty

In general, it can be noted that all the basic concepts concerning the problems of functioning of urban culture in the arid zone of Western Kazakhstan have been studied. The issues of urban planning in the steppe zone have been revised, including, if earlier in the domestic and foreign scientific literature the idea of the political will of the Golden Horde elite in urban planning prevailed, today it is possible to state with full confidence that there is a local tradition of the foundation of the functioning of settled agricultural settlements. The conclusion about a significant form of dependence of the sedentary population on the nomadic economy is also important, since as a result of numerous archaeological surveys, the fact that livestock products were the main food is clearly traced. This conclusion in many ways allows us to reconstruct the everyday culture of medieval settlements and thereby filling the existing gap in the national historical science.

According to the calendar plan, a scientific trip was carried out to Moscow, Astrakhan and, of course, to the location of the town itself in Atyrau. Business trips to archives and scientific institutions were carried out to collect historical information. More details about the results of scientific trips are presented on the pages of official reports. The results of the research are published on the pages of scientific and periodicals, and there are several interviews on television.

In general, the direct results of the project will have an impact on the objective and correct assessment of historical processes in our history. The recommendations, research methodology and approaches developed during the implementation of this project can be used in further projects and scientific works. In addition, it should be noted that the results obtained from this project can help the development of domestic tourism in a particular area and increase interest in the past among the younger generation of our country. Thus, the implementation of the project will not only lead to the reconstruction of historical processes in the steppe zone of Kazakhstan, but will also help fill in the existing gaps in scientific knowledge, and will also play a role in strengthening the ideological pillars of our society.


1. Articles and (or) reviews in peer-reviewed foreign and (or) domestic publications recommended by CQAES:

1. Margýlan A.S. Batyrhan B.Sh., Tokmýrzaev B.Sh. Istorıcheskaıa geografııa mongolskoı ımperıı v srednevekovoı entsıklopedıı Shıhab ad-Dına al-Omarı. Otan tarıhy № 2, 2022 

2. Saıkeneva D.K., Ýjkenov E.M., Morıakova M.T. Genezıs gorodov Zolotoı Ordy: problemy ıstorıografıı // Naýchnyı jýrnal «Otan tarıhy» – «Otechestvennaıa ıstorııa». 2022. №2 

2. Articles published within the framework of republican and/or international scientific and practical conferences.

1. Margýlan A.S.  Polıtıcheskaıa sıstema Ýlýsa Djýchı v XIII-XV vv. // Mejdýnarodnaıa naýchno-praktıcheskaıa onlaın-konferentsııa «III Abylaıhanovskıe chtenııa, 15 aprelıa 2022 goda

3. Publications in the media


1. Arepova A. «Altyn Orda dáýіrіne jatatyn Aqtóbe-Laetı qalasy – qolónershіler qonysy»». Gazeta «Shardara». 

2. Ýchastıe v semkah televızıonnoı programmy «V poıskah ıstıny» na telekanale Abaı TV po 2 temam:

Telekanal «ABAI TV». V poıskah ıstıny. «Altyn Orda. Goroda» – Ýjkenov Ernar ot 7 apr. 2022 g.

Telekanal «ABAI TV». V poıskah ıstıny. «Granıtsy kochevyh gosýdarstv v drevnostı ı srednevekove» – Ýjkenov Ernar ot 5 maıa. 2022 g.